Water Quality

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
315 1 Agency App. B “[chronic exposure of male rats to drinking water with 26 ppm sodium fluoroacetate] showed advanced atrophy with loss of the normal ordered structure [of the testes]”
315 2 Agency App. B “Cellular changes common to all treatment groups [of rats receiving 0.07mg 1080/kg bw/day or higher doses, in drinking water, for 7 days] consisted of altered appearance, reduced numbers of spermatids, and presence of both spermatid and spermatocyte giant cells”
316 1 Agency App. B “[in rats exposed to 20 ppm 1080 in drinking water for 7 days]..there were patchy degenerative changes in the testes, including multinucleated spermatagonia”
349 9 Agency App. C “Data gaps..chronic aquatic toxicity data”
350 3 Agency App. C “The Agency sought an independent expert review of the degradation of 1080 in water and soil” (review was of 17 papers provided by ERMA, none on degradation in soil or water under field conditions)
352 2 Agency App. C “No standard guideline studies were submitted by the applicants on the aquatic fate and degradation of 1080 and none were located by the Agency other than on the hydrolysis of 1080”
352 3 Agency App. C “1080 is stable to hydrolysis in the absence of microorganisms”
353 1 Agency App. C “In 1994 the Auckland Regional Council commissioned analysis of 8 water samples for the presence of micro-organisms capable of degrading 1080..two of the water samples had the capacity to defluorinate 1080..no defluorinating activity was found over a period of 4 weeks in the remaining samples”
353 4 Agency App. C “In a study with the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis, formation..of fluorocitrate from 1080 in the water was observed..presumably micro-organisms present in the test system were able to..release fluorocitrate into the water column”
354 1 Agency App. C “non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice]…A brief summary only of the test results [on aquatic plant uptake of 1080] was reported..test conditions not specified..weight basis for concentration in plants not specified, no statistical analyses reported, [plant species studied not reported]..no information provided on effects on..aquatic invertebrates in the test aquaria..Eason et al., 1993”
354 2 Agency App. C “[after 0.1 mg/L 1080 added to aquaria with plants and invertebrates, amount and source not specified]..residues were detected in the plants reaching a maximum of 0.051 mg/kg after one hour [with a 70% decline in 1080 in the after  24 hours]”
354 3 Agency App. C “distilled water control..no statistical analyses reported”
354 4 Agency App. C “non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice], [one] distilled water control..no statistical analyses reported, 21°C otherwise test conditions not specified, degradation results presented graphically only””
354 5 Agency App. C “1080 below limits of detection [at 21 oC in aquaria with plants, bacteria and fungi, dosed with 0.1mg 1080/L] after 141 hours, the longer time to degrade was attributed to the absence of Pseudomonas spp.”
354 6 Agency App. C “the fluoride ion was monitored [in a study of degradation of 0.1mg/L 1080 in water]..reaching..0.75mg/L”
354 7 Agency App. C “[the fluoride ion concentration was]..stated as being closely correlated with biodegradation of 1080 but data not provided [Parfitt et al, 1994]”
355 1 Agency App. C “1080 concentrations were presented in graphs only..non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice]” (one control, omission of 17d data for water with plants)
355 2 Agency App. C “17 Days After Treatment (DAT) 1080 stream water without plants [at 23°C] declined to 12 μg/l [from 129 μg/l]..at 7°C slower declines were seen [27 μg / l at 17 DAT]”
355 3 Agency App. C “[Aquatic] Plant uptake of 1080 [120g/L added to 2 L aquaria] peaked at day 1..approx 23  μg/kg”
355 4 Agency App. C “The fluoride ion concentration was measured in the [aquatic] test systems..mean final concentration of 83 μg/L (assumed to be 17 DAT; not stated in the study). Fluoride ion concentration in the control was 1-2 μg/l”
356 1 Agency App. C “Between 24 and 48 hours the concentration [of 1080] in the warmer water had declined significantly compared to that at 11oC. ..no 1080 could be detected in the warmer water after 141 hours, but [approx.] 30% of the initial dose was still present in the cooler water”
356 3 Agency App. C “1080 reached a maximum in [aquatic] plants after approx. 24 hours..after 191 hours…traces remained at 11°C [after 0.12 mg/L added to aquaria]”
356 4 Agency App. C “Control showed no significant decline in 1080 concentration..data not presented..non GLP [Good Laboratory Practice]..Issues with data manipulation (refer Attachment  1..)…[the data are incorrectly calculated, being 10-fold lower than the actual amounts]”
357 1 Agency App. C “Results obtained from the two repeats of the test were inconsistent, with time to loss of half of the 1080 from water [5  μg/L with aquatic plants] varying markedly..[from 17.9 hours  in one test to 65.6 hours in the other]
357 2 Agency App. C “deionised water used in all tests..to eliminate ..microbial contamination but plants not described as being from axenic culture..monitoring of test conditions not reported..no analyses presented for control samples..non-standard, non GLP [Good Laboratory Practice] “
357 3 Agency App. C “Greater loss from [aquatic] test systems at >/= 17°C”
357 5 Agency App. C “In the [aquatic] plant tissue the concentration reached 2.5  μg/kg after 2 hours and remained relatively stable up to 16 hours [aquatic plants in 5  μg/L 1080]”
357 4 Agency App. C “the concentration of 1080 in water [5  μg/L with aquatic plants] remained relatively constant for the first 6 hours”
359 3 Agency App. C “The Agency sought an independent expert opinion on the degradation of 1080 in water”
359 4 Agency App. C “The half-lives of 1080 in [aquatic] laboratory studies were in the range <<1 to 8 days”
359 5 Agency App. C “Overall, the relevance of the aquatic plant/water studies to the degradation of 1080 in water in NZ is not clear”
360 1 Agency App. C “The available set of high quality acute data [on aquatic toxicity] is small. No chronic studies have been undertaken”
360 2 Agency App. C “the Agency was not able to locate, any data on the aquatic toxicity of the metabolite fluorocitrate in water or soil”
361 6 Agency App. C “Blue-green algae..toxicity threshold 0.4 μg/l”
362 1 Agency App. C “73% reduction in frond growth rate [in duckweed] at 0.5 mg/L”.
362 2 Agency App. C “complete growth inhibition at 50 mg/L [duckweed, Spirodella oligorrhiza]..complete growth inhibition at 100g/L [duckweed, Spirodella polyrrhiza]”
363 1 Agency App. C “1080..measured in 5 of 8 eels which consumed muscle tissue..[was] 0.003-0.32mg/kg ..9 days after the last feed..low residues were measured in 1 of the 3 eels which had consumed contaminated gut”
363 2 Agency App. C “Crayfish were observed..consuming the baits..there were no mortalities [in 8 days..highest residues were] 3.3 mg/kg in viscera and 5mg/kg in tail muscle..7.1 mg/kg total concentration [viscera & muscle]was measured in a larger bodied crayfish 4 days after exposure”
363 3 Agency App. C “Concentrations in muscle decreased significantly  between days 4 and 8 (from mean ~1.2 mg/kg to ~0.2 mg/kg, data presented graphically only)”
364 1 Agency App. C “8 individuals of 3 species (long-finned eels)..koaro..upland bullies [held in cages in streams with 1080 baits in mesh bags 10 or 100m upstream or downstream]..3 cages..were stolen..mortalities [occurred] as a result of high flows..no mortalities could be attributed to 1080..no [tissue] sampling was undertaken..the fish did not have access [to baits]..bullies and koaro are..insectivorous..so it is unlikely they would consume baits..[eels were [not observed to consume baits when given access]”
365 1 Agency App. C “For a substance to be assigned [an aquatic]..9.1B..classification, the substance must also be considered bioaccumulative (which 1080 is not) and/or not rapidly degradable according to the HSNO Act criteria”
365 2 Agency App. C “the aquatic hazard classification of technical grade 1080 is very uncertain..and [this also] applies to the classifications of the substances containing 1080”
374 5 Agency App. C “1080..stated as being fully recovered from the column [of soil]..after addition of 40 mL water”
376 1 Agency App. C “At bore 2 [13 m downstream from a landfill where 12, 000 kg toxic bait was disposed of] 1 μg/L [1080 was found in groundwater 6 months later]”
415 3 Agency App. C “The trials [on toxicity of 1080 in bait, prey and water to NZ native frogs] were preliminary, rather than providing standard end point data”
415 4 Agency App. C “12 adult frogs of each species  [NZ native frogs]..were dehydrated..prior to placement in [1080] treated water, presumably to attain a ‘worst case’ state prior to exposure”
447 4 Agency App. C “In the rabbit control experiment, very low levels of fluoroacetate were detected at 3 of the 4 [water monitoring] sites”
434 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “[1080] is highly water soluble, involatile, and stable to hydrolysis”
436 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “Fluorocitrate peaked at [1.6 mg/L at]..8 days [in aquaria dosed with] 5 mg/L 1080”
438 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “there was little degradation in the distilled water aquarium”
438 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “Information on the metabolic fate could not be assessed, as..metabolites were not tested for [in Eason study on 1080 degradation in aquaria]”
439 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “1080 is hydrolysed very slowly in water at neutral pH in the absence of biota..at ambient temperatures the half-life would be expected to be at least 4 years”
439 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “a Pseudomonas species was isolated from river sediment by a process of an enrichment culture technique that could utilise fluoroacetate as the sole carbon source”
440 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “It is not possible to say how important this is [a culture of a Pseudomonas species was found to contain an enzyme that could catalyse the hydrolysis of fluoroacetate] as it is not an eco-toxological paper”
440 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “fluoride was produced in tandem with the disappearance of the substance [1080, in a flask culture with a bacterium]”
443 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “Samples of soil and water were taken from 8 localities in (presumably) New Zealand..there are no data in the report on the type or localities..or prior history..in 3 [out of 8 soil samples] and 2 (out of 8) water samples it was possible to culture..bacteria..that could use 1080..1080-utilising bacteria were either absent in the other samples or were not viable under the conditions used for enrichment”
444 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “Initial dosing [in an aquatic degradation study] was 0.12 mg/L (120 ppb) 1080, which was stated to be 40x the highest environmental water found in the field”
444 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “there was a marked lag phase, probably indicating the induction of a population of 1080 utilising micro-organisms…at 7°C [the DT 50] was ca. 10 days [in stream water dosed with 0.12mg/L 1080]”
444 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “[1080] in [water] plant tissue peaked..on day 1..declined to barely detectable levels..on day 13 (7°C) [after dosing with 0.12 mg/L 1080]”
445 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “at 11°C the concentration of 1080 [in aquaria with a species of aquatic plant] declined..at 192 hours there was still 23% of the [1080 dosed at 0.12 mg/L] remaining”
445 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “in the [water] plants, the concentration of [1080] peaked at 24 hr..at 11°C there were still detectable levels at 240 hr [after dosing with 0.12 mg/L 1080]”
447 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “[1080] was recovered totally from the columns [of soil with water applied equivalent to 160mm rain]..it was minimally [adsorbed] on to the soil”
447 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “It was hypothesised that this [finding 1080 in water samples after an aerial operation] was due to contamination, as control samples also tested positive”
447 5 Agency App. C: Fisk “One of the positive [water samples for 1080] was collected before aerial dosing began”
447 6 Agency App. C: Fisk “The one criticism is that soils and water used in the degradation studies could have been subject to prior exposure to fluoroacetate”
452 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “There was no elimination of [1080] in the absence of [aquatic] plant material”
453 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “The rate of elimination [of 1080 in water with aquatic plants] was positively related with temperature and was significantly lower at 5 oC and 11°C”
453 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “There are no data as to whether the metabolic compounds are fluorocitrate (toxic) or glycolate (non-toxic) or any other potential product of metabolism [study on removal of 1080 from water by plants]”
453 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “One trial gave faster rates of elimination..and was ignored”
454 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion][1080 is] rapidly biodegradable in natural waters and soils, although this is very temperature dependent..degradation is also much slower in soils with lower moisture content” (based on only 1 field study on water and none on soil)
454 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] These enzymes [that catalyse defluorination] are present in soil bacteria and fungi”
457 1 Ag. App. C: Sample storage “no further work has been undertaken to more fully investigate factors potentially affecting degradation of 1080 in soil during frozen sample storage [at -20°C] e.g. Soil type, water content, microbial population, and from there identify the most valid procedures for storage and processing samples..in the light of the findings by O’Halloran & Jones (2003) [1080] present in some samples..may have been degraded during storage at -20°C to present undetectable concentrations at analysis.”
467 1 Agency App. E “The timing of sampling [of environmental media] relative to an operation and the storage of samples before analysis is critical to interpretation of the results of monitoring.”
467 2 Agency App. E “Several reports provide highly summarised results [of water quality monitoring]”
469 1 Agency App. E (groundwater measured, but no specific data provided)
469 3 Agency App. E “Eighteen [water] samples (3 from the control site..) showed traces of 1080..that were confirmed as contamination of sample containers”
469 4 Agency App. E “Water temperatures during sampling [for monitoring 1080 operations at Mt Taranaki April-July, 4.9-13°C]”
470 1 Agency App. E “some baits observed [in] watercourses”
470 2 Agency App. E “Water temp 0°C at time of sample collection [for monitoring 1080 operation]”
470 3 Agency App. E “[water] samples frozen within 5 hours of collection”
472 1 Agency App. E “A recent [water] sampling protocol..(2001)..[states that] ‘Samples should be taken immediately after poisoning and continue daily until after the first significant rainfall’..few of the monitoring programmes reported such frequent initial sampling, possibly because there was no regulatory requirement to do so..or because of the cost of sample analysis”
472 2 Agency App. E “Bulking of [water] samples, while expedient, may mask samples that do contain measureable amounts of 1080”
472 3 Agency App. E “In relation to environmental monitoring, the Agency notes the concerns about storage [e.g.] Eason..refers to water samples being frozen “within 5 hours” of collection, which seems a..long period before appropriate storage”
472 4 Agency App. E “the expected number of baits deposited in a stream cannot be assessed from stream size or bait application rate”
473 1 Agency App. E “the reason for so many non-detects in water monitoring..may be partly due to..rapid..dilution or loss of 1080 from, and disintegration of..baits within the first 12 hours of deposition..the author [Suren, 2006] recommends sampling within 4-8 hours..frequently resource consents require monitoring one day or more after..the operation”
473 2 Agency App. E “[number of baits found per 100m of stream (maximum)]..38”
474 1 Agency App. E “Due to costs of analysis, not all water samples were analysed. Sequential samples were aggregated in groups of 3 before analysis.”
475 4 Agency App. E “Water samples were taken from streams inside the treatment areas..with 2 positive samples from 5 collected on day 1”
693 1 Agency App. M “There may be some uncertainty associated with the [drinking water testing] results, when sample storage information is taken into account..Eason..refers to water samples being frozen ‘within 5 hours’ of collection..this seems a relatively long time before appropriate storage of the..sample was carried out, but it reflects the reality of sampling remote water sources and traversing the..area on foot”
694 1 Agency App. M “When the treatment area has involved the catchment for a public water supply..the intake is closed until a negative analysis has been confirmed” (takes no account of flooding or spread)
694 2 Agency App. M “Only rarely has analysis of the surface water resulted in the finding of..1080, after aerial dropping..even though inspection has shown that baits are not infrequently visible in streams”
695 1 Agency App. M “39 samples from drinking water supplies at the time of this report (Eason et al., 1999) were negative” (no consideration given to sample storage)
695 2 Agency App. M “The Agency considered..the only situation where [chronic exposure to 1080 in drinking water could occur] is where a stream is used to feed a small reservoir..[1080] would be subjected to some dilution as the reservoir would contain water [already]..it is most unlikely the peak level would be sustained in the stream..therefore the Agency reduced the concentration by a factor of 10..the projected [maximum dosage] therefore becomes, 0.05 μg/l..this value [is] higher than the Permissible Daily Exposure [for the 3-4 year old used in the Agency’s example, and for a formula fed] baby, the water intake in proportion to body weight would be even higher”
696 1 Agency App. M “standard controls will apply to address high risks, such as: No loaded aircraft will fly over reservoir lakes or feeding streams..intake for..public water supply will be disconnected from any streams arising in the treated area..any incident involving accidental distribution outside the drop zone will be notified (ignores effects of dust, floods and that streams arise from small tributaries)
699 1 Agency App. M “1080 is relatively soluble, so the likelihood of drinking water resides is relatively high”
699 2 Agency App. M “Since 1080 is highly water soluble, the Agency assumes that it would be difficult to remove by treatment processes”
700 3 Agency App. M “Weaver [2003, 2006] were cited by some submissions in support of the view that the existing PMAV is not appropriate from a regulatory perspective [largely because] developmental effects [in rats] may be due to endocrine disruption”
700 2 Agency App. M “The Agency understands that carcasses can reach waterways particularly after significant rain events and agrees there are some aspects which make this a higher risk in relation to drinking water contamination. In particular: a single carcass could [contain] a number of baits [and] the drinking water source may have already been declared free of contamination”
700 1 Agency App. M “The Agency compared both the acute and chronic exposures that could occur from aerial 1080 operations, based on the water sampling data that have been reported and in comparison with conservative assumptions”
705 1 Agency App. M “[In freshwater crayfish] tail muscle analysis gave ~ 1.5 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.25 mg/kg at Day 8, while for viscera analysis gave ~1.2 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.2 mg/kg at Day 8”
706 1 Agency App. M “[calculations suggest] the risk from meat consumption for freshwater species may be higher than for terrestrial meat sources. The Agency considers this conclusion misleading. A prime aim of 1080 operations is to avoid deposition of baits into waterways”
708 1 Agency App. M “when exposed to 5 μg/l..in water..[Elodea] plants absorbed the 1080 from the solution to reach a maximum  concentration of 2.5 μg/kg before declining relatively slowly to below the limit of detection (2 μg/kg) at 24 hours”
708 2 Agency App. M “Considering the surface water analyses, the absorption [by Elodea canadensis] of 1080 from water containing 5 μg/l ..represents a relatively unlikely scenario”
711 1 Agency App. M “Estimates of some health risk[s] based on..the [Permissible Daily Exposure limits for food and water] in some cases appear unacceptable. The Agency considers an overall assessment of the risks needs to take into account the conservatism of the approach and the extremely unlikely nature of [such exposures]..when such an approach is taken the health risk estimates are considered insignificant”
724 3 Agency App. N (whole groups of organisms have been omitted from the Agency’s Exposure &  Risk Assessment, including ferns, mosses, freshwater molluscs, fungi, geckos, as well as habitats, including swamps, ponds, slow-flowing streams, groundwater, pine forests)
726 1 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in aquatic plants] 0.005 mg/kg 1080 after 100 hours”
763 1 Agency App. O “No data from monitoring of environmental concentrations [of cyanide in water] has been identified”
874 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “New information on 1080 Maximum Acceptable Value in water will soon be available; defer decision to avoid having to re-visit the 1080 protocols” (Ministry of Health)
19 1 Applicants’ references “Carrot baits were highly water-resistant and showed no decline in 1080..after 200 mm of rain. It is..inadvisable to use carrot bait in arid areas” (Bowen et al., 1995)
39 2 Applicants’ references “the rapid effect on the water balance of plants shown by fluoride” (Cooke, 1976)
50 1 Applicants’ references “there is a need to more clearly understand how 1080 breaks down in water and to model any consequences of 1080 contamination in waterways” (Eason et al., 1994)
60 1 Applicants’ references “[1080]..was found to inhibit methogenesis in freshwater and anaerobic digestor samples at or above concentrations of 0.1 mM.” (Emptage et al., 1997)
66 1 Applicants’ references “The Landcare Research Toxicology Laboratory maintains a database of water samples..these samples have been taken predominantly from within or adjacent to baited areas” (Fisher et al., 2003)
109 1 Applicants’ references “Looking for microorganisms that degrade 1080 in 8 soil and 8 water samples. Three soils and 2 water samples did contain the required bacteria” (Lloyd & McQueen, 1998)
136 1 Applicants’ references “Because 1080 is used..widely..its fate in water and its effect on non-target species..have been comprehensively assessed” (Morgan & Eason, 2002)
153 2 Applicants’ references “traces [of 1080] were found in some [water] samples..but these could have arisen from contamination of the outside of some containers” (Parfitt et al., 1994)
154 1 Applicants’ references “The amount of 1080 used per ha is..less than 15g..and if any..is not degraded because of low biological activity (e.g. at low temperature) it will be diluted by soil water and streamwater to very low concentrations” (Parfitt et al., 1994)
178 2 Applicants’ references “Production of CH4 [by bacteria in lake sediment] was inhibited by..fluoroacetate” (Schultz & Conrad, 1996)
183 2 Applicants’ references “The chronic administration of this low level [5 ppm of fluoroacetate in drinking water] caused an early but temporary retardation of growth..at termination of the experiment..the testes [showed] severe damage characterised by massive disorganisation of the tubules, nearly total loss of functional cells, absence of sperm and damage to the Sertoli cells” (Smith et al., 1977)
191 1 Applicants’ references “cellular changes common to the 3 treatment groups [of rats receiving 2.2-20 ppm sodium fluoroacetate in drinking water] included altered appearance and decreased numbers of spermatids, and formation of spermatid and spermatocyte giant cells” (Sullivan et al., 1979)
221 1 Applicants’ references “fluoroacetate [amount not stated]..totally inhibited acetate metabolism [in anaerobic organisms in lake sediments and overlying water]” (Winfrey & Zeikus, 1979)
223 1 Applicants’ references “A maximum concentration of 25.2 μg 1080 mˉ² was detected in [cereal] bait dust..within the control zone..lower concentrations were found outside treatment areas..there were detectable short-term 1080 residues in water, plant, leaf litter and soil samples after 2 of the 3 baiting operations” (Wright et al., 2002)
1 1 Submitter 9371 “Hutt Valley Medical Officer of Health Stephen Palmer has stopped a planned airdrop of 1080 pellets over part of Tararua Forest Park which includes the water supply for..Featherston. His move follows allegations by two Wairarapa doctors that there have been unexplained ‘peaks’ in miscarriages following previous airdrops in the late 1970s, and in 1993 and 1994”
1 1 Submitter 8529 “I have personally witnessed the dead deer, pigs, and bird life..many of the poison pellets and victims were lying in the waterways”
2 2 Submitter 8529 “The U.S. Manufacturer’s instructions say 1080 should be kept out of waterways..[and] only used in secure bait stations and burrows in the ground”
16 1 Submitter 9143 “My results show clearly that those insects associated with leaf litter breakdown..are the most severely impacted by 1080..a possible mechanism can be inferred from the work of Hilton et al (1969) [who] state ‘the high degree of adsorption of monofluoroacetate to leaf and root tissue, as well as to other cellulosics such as filter paper, was entirely unexpected’..it is possible that the fibrous bait components are assimilated into the forest litter after rain..[and] became attached to the highly cellulosic and fibrous leaf litter where it remained for at least 3 months” (Meads report)
16 1 Submitter 9143 “Hilton et al (1969) state ‘the high degree of adsorption of monofluoroacetate to leaf and root tissue, as well as to other cellulosics such as filter paper, was entirely unexpected’.” (Meads report, indicates water sample analysis using filter paper may remove 1080)
57 1 Committee Decision “1080 is..biodegradable in water and does not bioaccumulate”
57 3 Committee Decision “rapid dilution of 1080 would occur within a large body of water”
59 1 Committee Decision “the available scientific data on the degradation of 1080 in water indicate the substance is biodegradable but that there is still some uncertainty regarding the relevance of some of the test data to the New Zealand environment”
59 3 Committee Decision “water samples rarely contain measurable 1080 residues”
59 4 Committee Decision “bait deposited in water results in extremely low concentrations of 1080 and the organisms would be able to metabolise/excrete the substance over a short period”
60 2 Committee Decision “improvements in bait application technology..such as..improved design of bait hoppers..have led to a reduction in the amounts of bait likely to be deposited in small water bodies”
60 3 Committee Decision “the Committee does recommend further research on the degradation rates of 1080 in water”
64 1 Committee Decision “trials exposing native frogs to 1080 residues in water and to cereal bait containing 1080 were inconclusive due..to the small numbers of animals used and their tendency to hide..[reflecting] the difficulties associated with testing many native species”
70 1 Committee Decision “testing of samples of surface water sources and public supplies has not found concentrations of 1080 above the Ministry of Health’s PMAV”
71 2 Committee Decision “[the applicants] stated that the important thing was that 1080 residue levels in surface water are usually too small to be detected”
71 4 Committee Decision “Contamination of animals via consumption of stock water is considered very unlikely due to the low concentrations and rapid degradation of 1080 in waterways”
72 3 Committee Decision “the potential health risk from consumption of contaminated wild freshwater food sources is..low”
73 1 Committee Decision “for contamination of watercress to be a concern, the 1080 would need to be in the water in greater concentration than is likely to occur”
73 2 Committee Decision “The Committee recommends..studies be carried out on the possible effects of accumulation of 1080 in aquatic plants such as watercress”
91 2 Committee Decision “existing controls have been strengthened and new ones added..these include: – setting a maximum application rate; requiring public notification of any aerial operation; prohibiting aircraft from flying over public drinking water supplies” (all were previously controls)
92 1 Committee Decision “to ensure the information on the watch list is both comprehensive and accurate, the Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation..the information must include..details of pre- and post- monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
96 1 Committee Decision “The PMAV (Provisional Maximum Acceptable Value) represents the concentration of 1080 in water that, on the basis of present knowledge, is not considered to cause any significant risk to the health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption of that water”
126 2 Committee Decision “If a major spill into a waterway occurred, the spread may be uncontrollable”
158 2 Decision App. A “the documentation provided with 1080 must include..its expected soil or water degradation rate”
188 1 Decision App. A [any person who applies aerial 1080 must supply information on]..pre- and post-operational monitoring of birds and invertebrates (if available)..and water quality (if available)”