Meat Residues

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
325 1 Agency App. B “1080 passes relatively freely through membranes and into cells..distribution..across membranes may be facilitated by transport mechanisms for acetate”
325 2 Agency App. B “fluoroacetae is readily distributed around the body, between vascular compartments and within tissues”
330 1 Agency App. B “It may indicate that a small amount of fluorocitrate is produced from dietary fluoride..but such a conclusion is not justified on the basis of a single, unconfirmed finding”
371 1 Agency App. C “concentrations [of 1080 in rabbit carcasses]..were highly variable”
393 2 Agency App. C “[time to death for possums after a single oral dose of 1080] 5.0-97.0 hours”
395 1 Agency App. C [21 [sheep] died within 4 days of dosing”
396 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for rabbits after single oral dose of 1080] 3.0-44.3 hours”
521 3 Agency App. F “There is little data available on confirmed poisonings of livestock and companion animals”
521 4 Agency App. F “[poisoning of livestock occurred] when animals entered areas that had been treated with 1080 or as a result of accidental application of bait to stocked paddocks or return of stock to treated areas”
521 5 Agency App. F “cases included..150 sheep dying 10 weeks after toxic carrot had been laid in paddocks..78 sheep dying after grazing an airstrip used to load toxic carrot bait..20 weeks after the operation”
521 6 Agency App. F “the Agency does not know whether poisonings [of domestic animals occurred between 2003 and 2006] and were not formally diagnosed or were not reported via [Surveillance, MAF publication, which published cases until 2003] “
521 7 Agency App. F “Notes accompanying..reported cases of poisoning in Surveillance [MAF publication] indicate several instances where stock had access to poisoned bait”
560 1 Agency App. H “The most relevant information on 1080 residues in meat..was Eason et al., (1994).The study established the half-lives of 1080 in [3] sheep..the half-life in sheep was..substantially longer than in goats”
560 2 Agency App. H “only 3 [sheep] were used [in a study by Eason, et al., 1994 on 1080 residues in animal tissues], and there appeared to be considerable variability in the half-life in different animals”
562 1 Agency App. H “The Agency did not find data on tissue residues [of 1080] in species which would be termed the main human meat sources, such as cattle, pigs, and deer”
563 2 Agency App. H “Possums..have high LD 50 values, is likely that possums are able to sustain higher residue levels without lethality”
563 3 Agency App. H “The Agency contends that consideration of fluorocitrate or of other metabolites [in meat] is not necessary and that consideration of the unchanged 1080 is what requires health risk assessment”
563 4 Agency App. H “Even in a fatally poisoned animal the latency period can be as long as 29 hours..for a sub-lethal dose, it must be possible for the animal to be asymptomatic, for a substantial is theoretically possible for a person to obtain the animal during the latency period and consider [it] to be in good condition [for meat]”
583 2 Agency App. J: Cullen “the Application..states that..’Currently the NZFSA reports that none of our trading partners are concerned about the use of 1080 in NZ’..use of the word ‘currently’ suggests that at another partners or domestic consumers might be concerned about the use of 1080..the likelihood of concern arising may be considerably larger than indicated by ‘improbable’.”
701 1 Agency App. M “The Agency identified 3 main scenarios that may give rise to meat containing 1080 residues. Farm animals..may accidentally get access to 1080..feral animals..taken by hunters may have been poisoned..or sub-lethally poisoned”
702 1 Agency App. M “If [an] animal, such as a deer, contained 1080 residues, [a] family could be exposed to residues on a regular basis until the contaminated meat from the single animal was consumed..[in which case] the dose rate is..for a 70kg adult..about 30 times the PDEfood [Permissible Daily Exposure in food]”
703 1 Agency App. M “Weaver, (2003) raised concern about..meat residues..due to his concern that developmental effects may occur via endocrine disruption”
704 1 Agency App. M “The Agency notes that the likelihood of a hunter taking game that has been poisoned with 1080 before the animal dies or completes excretion of the poison (which only takes about 48 hours) is remote”
756 2 Agency App. N “Five dead deer..were located during a 9-day search of one sector of the [deer] repellent treated block. Analysis of muscle tissue for 1080 residues confirmed the cause of death”
756 3 Agency App. N “Analysis of muscle tissue for 1080 residues confirmed the cause of death [of 5 deer]..although the residue data have not been sighted by the Agency”
757 3 Agency App. N “Muscle residues [of dead wild deer] were..0.7-1.2 mg 1080 /kg tissue”
758 2 Agency App. N “Residues [in dead wild animals]..0.46 mg/kg in muscles samples [of a dead pig] and in deer..0.25-4.4 mg/kg”
906 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Reported poison residues brought about the temporary end of the multi-million dollar commercial wild animals meat recovery industry in 2002”
907 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Possum pet food meat exported to Japan rejected because of unfavourable publicity re NZ’s 1080 programme”
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
45 3 Applicants’ references “To quantitate the risk [of livestock eating a sublethal dose]..rabbits, sheep and goats have been orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg 1080” (Eason & Gooneratne, 1993)
75 1 Applicants’ references “Elevation of plasma F in [1080] lethally dosed [rabbits] was least 3 x higher [than normal] and was the highest in animals which died early” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
85 1 Applicants’ references “Possums that ate..small doses of 1080..either endured a protracted time to death or survived” (Henderson et al., 1999)
118 1 Applicants’ references “Signs of poisoning [in pigs] appeared [up to] 47.3 h after dosing, and deaths [up to] 80 h..after dosing” (McIlroy, 1983)
136 3 Applicants’ references “If livestock become exposed to 1080 bait, a minimum withholding period of 5-10 days is advised” (Morgan & Eason, 2002)
152 2 Applicants’ references “In low rainfall areas, it may be appropriate to extend the withholding time until laboratory testing of weathered bait indicates it is safe to restock” (Orr & Bentley, 1994)
189 1 Applicants’ references “The rainfall pattern is an important factor in the weathering of poisoned rabbit baits but it is not possible to lay down specific rules about the time domestic stock should be kept off recently poisoned areas” (Staples, 1968)
194 1 Applicants’ references “There was no tissue specific accumulation of [1080, up to 4 hours after intravenous injection, in mice]..however bone accumulation of [fluoride] was significant” (Sykes et al., 1987)
217 1 Applicants’ references “Numerous cases of suspect accidental poisoning of livestock with..1080..occur in NZ every year” (Wickstrom & Eason, 1997)
14 2 Committee Decision “Animals which consume a non-lethal dose generally recover within a short period of time”
14 6 Committee Decision “possums that eat a lethal dose of 1080 usually die in 6 to 18 hours”
71 4 Committee Decision “Contamination of animals via consumption of stock water is considered very unlikely due to the low concentrations and rapid degradation of 1080 in waterways”
72 1 Committee Decision “It is possible contaminated meat could be taken from wild animals due to the..latency period”
72 2 Committee Decision “residue levels in feral animals are likely to be very low…signage and public notification controls address such issues”
86 1 Committee Decision “livestock deaths from 1080 poison do occur”
87 1 Committee Decision “Contamination of farmed meat and dairy produce is unlikely to occur as livestock are excluded from treatment areas and feral deer meat for human consumption is [sourced from] 1080-free areas”
89 3 Committee Decision “there is no evidence that the use of 1080 was responsible [for the collapse in trade of feral venison]”
201 2 Decision App.B “[impact on game meat industry]..Not assessed..current industry small, unlikely to be affected by use of 1080”