Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
349 2 Agency App. C “50g/kg 1080 [gel, and all mixtures with lower concentrations] does not trigger [the soil ecotoxicity hazard]”
351 4 Agency App. C “the few soil organism toxicity data available indicate low toxicity”
352 2 Agency App. C “the very low concentrations of 1080 which may occur in the environment may be too low to favour microbial degradation or induce the necessary enzyme systems”
352 3 Agency App. C “1080 is stable to hydrolysis in the absence of microorganisms”
353 1 Agency App. C “In 1994 the Auckland Regional Council commissioned analysis of 8 water samples for the presence of micro-organisms capable of degrading 1080..two of the water samples had the capacity to defluorinate 1080..no defluorinating activity was found over a period of 4 weeks in the remaining samples”
353 3 Agency App. C “detection of micro-organisms capable of defluorination in the laboratory does not confirm that degradation will occur in situ”
353 4 Agency App. C “In a study with the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis, formation..of fluorocitrate from 1080 in the water was observed..presumably micro-organisms present in the test system were able to..release fluorocitrate into the water column”
357 2 Agency App. C “deionised water used in all tests..to eliminate ..microbial contamination but plants not described as being from axenic culture..monitoring of test conditions not reported..no analyses presented for control samples..non-standard, non GLP [Good Laboratory Practice] “
367 2 Agency App. C “in most of these studies [on soil] the micro-organisms have been..[cultured]..on 1080-rich media in the laboratory..rather than using soil as in standard soil biodegradation studies”
367 4 Agency App. C “In 1994 the Auckland Regional Council commissioned analyses of 8 soil samples for micro-organisms capable of degrading 1080..the source was not identified..3 of the 8 samples had the capacity to defluorinate 1080..no..activity was seen over..4 weeks in the remaining samples using enrichment techniques, indicating ..a microbial population capable of defluorination was absent from those samples”
368 1 Agency App. C “The authors noted..due to the highly heterogeneous nature of the soil environment a more comprehensive sampling would be required to adequately characterise the microbial population [regarding its ability to defluorinate 1080]”
368 2 Agency App. C “the very low concentrations of 1080 which may occur in the environment may be too low to favour microbial degradation..detection of microorganisms capable of defluorination in the laboratory does not confirm that degradation will occur in situ unless conditions are favourable”
368 3 Agency App. C “no adverse effects  [were observed at 5 mg/L 1080] on soil microflora [2 species]..isolated from NZ soils previously exposed to 1080”
373 1 Agency App. C “many vertebrate pest control operations are conducted in NZ during winter or early spring when ground temperatures are well below 20°C, microbial activity is slower and soils wet. Under dry conditions, microbial activity is also less than optimum, resulting in slower degradation..even when soil temperatures are higher’
385 3 Agency App. C “Only one study was submitted on the toxicity of 1080 on soil microbial function..ie effects on nitrogen transformation..rather than two studies as would normally be expected in a full regulatory data package [ie] a study of the effects on soil respiration has not been conducted”
385 4 Agency App. C “results [from a small study on possum urine] indicated a possible 15% reduction in nitrate production compared with control soils..due to the very small sample size (one replicate of one treatment) the differences could not be compared statistically”
385 5 Agency App. C “fluoroacetate inhibited respiration in yeast, Corynebacterium creatinovorans and Escherichia coli”
440 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “a..bacterium..from garden soil in SE England, was capable of growing on fluoroacetate”
440 5 Agency App. C: Fisk “this paper examines..soil microbes from five sites in western Australia..[they] might be expected to show increased ability to metabolise [1080]”
441 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “[this study on 1080 degradation by soil microbes from Australia] is clearly a summary and a few more details would be useful”
441 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “Micro-organisms capable of degrading fluoroacetate were only isolatable from temperate [western Australian] soils, but not from semi-arid tropical regions”
441 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “In the degradation experiments [with isolated micro-organisms from western Australian soil] the maximum amount of 1080 degraded was 65-87% and occurred in 5-49 days”
441 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “There was almost no breakdown..[by micro-organisms from Western Australia] where the soil moisture content was only 2.6%”
444 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “there was a marked lag phase, probably indicating the induction of a population of 1080 utilising micro-organisms…at 7°C [the DT 50] was ca. 10 days [in stream water dosed with 0.12mg/L 1080]”
445 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “Comment [by Fisk] This is an important paper that demonstrates that [1080] is degraded quite rapidly by plants and micro-organisms under laboratory conditions” (one study, one aquatic plant species, one dose rate of 1080)
449 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “Soils with a prior history of [1080] exposure showed a higher incidence of fluoride degrading micro-organisms”
450 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “species [micro-organisms from western Australian soils] varied in their ability to defluorinate [1080] and from 2 – 87% was degraded in 57 days”
454 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] in naturally arid soils, the soil microflora have been shown to degrade [1080] quite rapidly”
454 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] if so [possible adaptation of plants and micro-organisms to 1080 has occurred due to its presence from human and plant sources] adaptation must be quite widespread”
457 1 Ag. App. C: Sample storage “no further work has been undertaken to more fully investigate factors potentially affecting degradation of 1080 in soil during frozen sample storage [at -20°C] e.g. Soil type, water content, microbial population, and from there identify the most valid procedures for storage and processing samples..in the light of the findings by O’Halloran & Jones (2003) [1080] present in some samples..may have been degraded during storage at -20°C to present undetectable concentrations at analysis.”
34 1 Applicants’ references “[1080] inhibited acetate consumption by all microorganisms” (Chidthiasong & Conrad, 2000)
42 1 Applicants’ references “600 micrograms given introperitoneally on the 9th day, causes eye anomalies, syndactylia and evisceration [in rat embryos]” (De Meyer & De Plaen, 1964)
60 1 Applicants’ references “[1080]..was found to inhibit methogenesis in freshwater and anaerobic digestor samples at or above concentrations of 0.1 mM.” (Emptage et al., 1997)
96 1 Applicants’ references “Oxidative metabolism of R. stolonifer [fungal pathogen, was inhibited by 1080]” (Kazmis et al., 1980)
105 1 Applicants’ references (1080 was found to be a sproulation inhibitor in a fungal microorganism) (Latge, 1980)
109 1 Applicants’ references “Looking for microorganisms that degrade 1080 in 8 soil and 8 water samples. Three soils and 2 water samples did contain the required bacteria” (Lloyd & McQueen, 1998)
149 2 Applicants’ references “The urine [applied to soil] from possums that had received a lethal dose of 1080 caused a 15% reduction in substrate-induced nitrogen production” (O’Halloran et al., 2003)
165 1 Applicants’ references “Due to the inability of natural microorganisms to grow under artificial conditions the obtained collection of isolates is not a good representation of all 1080 degrading bacteria in soil” (Pronk, 2001)
178 2 Applicants’ references “Production of CH4 [by bacteria in lake sediment] was inhibited by..fluoroacetate” (Schultz & Conrad, 1996)
184 1 Applicants’ references “Respiratory inhibition by sodium monofluoroacetate suggests the presence of a functional TCA in both [fungal] pathogens” (Soni et al., 1980)
213 1 Applicants’ references “Using..enrichment culture techniques micro-organisms capable of detoxifying [1080] have been found in many and diverse samples of local soils” (Walker, 1994)
221 1 Applicants’ references “fluoroacetate [amount not stated]..totally inhibited acetate metabolism [in anaerobic organisms in lake sediments and overlying water]” (Winfrey & Zeikus, 1979)
222 1 Applicants’ references “The amount of defluorination varied with different species of microorganisms, ranging from 2 to 85% in soil and 2 to 89% in 1080 solutions” (Wong et al., 1992)
58 1 Committee Decision “the Committee did not, however, receive any specific information supporting this concern [about effects of 1080 on soil micro-organisms]”
58 4 Committee Decision “the available information on the toxicity of 1080 to soil organisms indicates little risk at the concentrations which occur in the soil as a result of aerial application”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
194 1 Decision App. B “[minimal, highly improbable adverse effect of contamination of soil because of] low toxicity to soil micro-organisms”