Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
21 Landcare: Ataria “there was inadequate time allocated in the presentation to explore these issues [including impacts on health]”
294 1 Agency App. B “1080 can..cause reproductive toxicity in male mammalian species”
294 2 Agency App. B “1080 can..cause developmental effects in laboratory rodents”
294 3 Agency App. B “1080 can cause sub-chronic toxicity affecting the heart after prolonged exposure in laboratory rodents and, possibly, in sheep”
299 2 Agency App. B “dermal [toxicity] data are limited”
306 2 Agency App. B “carcinogenicity data are usually required for substances for which chronic exposure is likely..even considering its extensive proposed use, the likelihood of prolonged very unlikely”
306 4 Agency App. B “The mutagenicity data [from one unseen study on mice] are negative. This indicates there is no reason to suspect that 1080 may be carcinogenic”
314 2 Agency App. B “the heart weights in the two top dose  groups [0.8 and 0.2 ppm 1080 daily] for the female [mink] were reduced..reduced spleen, kidney and heart weight was reported”
317 1 Agency App. B “The report of the first stage [Meikle et al., 1996 Landcare report on health and reproductive perfomance in sheep] was not available for review by the Agency”
317 3 Agency App. B “after two years, [1080] treated ewes [had] small foci of interstitial fibrosis in the cardiac (heart) muscle”
321 1 Agency App. B “the Agency considered that acute exposures to 1080 in humans and animals may give rise to..irreversible adverse, target organ [heart and brain] effects. These effects are severe”
323 2 Agency App. B “treatment-related effects..were increased heart weight [and] absolute spleen weights were reduced”
325 1 Agency App. B “1080 passes relatively freely through membranes and into cells..distribution..across membranes may be facilitated by transport mechanisms for acetate”
325 2 Agency App. B “fluoroacetae is readily distributed around the body, between vascular compartments and within tissues”
326 1 Agency App. B “In carbon-labelling studies, after 4 days..0.2% of the carbon remained to be excreted..very little 1080 remained in the animal..this [remaining] labelled carbon had [likely] been incorporated into metabolic products in the body”
329 1 Agency App. B “reported no activity of this enzyme system [1080 detoxification] in the brain”
329 2 Agency App. B “One metabolic product [of 1080] amino is possible that a fluorinated amino acid may be incorporated into proteins..The Agency considers [this finding] needs verification..Clark (1991) also refers to the interaction of 1080 metabolites on amino acid metabolism”
332 1 Agency App. B “An important characteristic of 1080 poisoning is there a relatively stable, symptomless latency period before the relatively rapid onset of serious toxic signs”
337 1 Agency App. B “Parkin et al 1977) claimed a case of chronic poisoning in an occupationally exposed rabbiter..on the basis of subsequent debate [on analytical results] and..uncertainties..the study cannot be considered to be proven, so it does not form a reliable basis for regulatory decision making”
339 1 Agency App. B “the applicants claim..that no cases of [human] poisoning have been reported in New Zealand..the Agency identified at least one (fatal) case”
340 1 Agency App. B “the applicants assume that [a sub-lethal dose] would not result in permanent harm..the Agency is not aware of good information..that established..doses..that are likely to be least one human acute poisoning..has caused prolonged disability..This does make it clear that an acute toxic dose, if survived, may be responsible for permanent harm”
345 5 Agency App. B “Note that the application states (incorrectly) that the 6.8A applies to formulations at 1% or above. The correct cut-off concentration is 0.1%”
398 1 Agency App. C “[testes, liver, kidney and thymus weights of young ferrets decreased following 1.08-3.5 mg/kg diet 1080 for 28 days]”
521 4 Agency App. F “[poisoning of livestock occurred] when animals entered areas that had been treated with 1080 or as a result of accidental application of bait to stocked paddocks or return of stock to treated areas”
521 5 Agency App. F “cases included..150 sheep dying 10 weeks after toxic carrot had been laid in paddocks..78 sheep dying after grazing an airstrip used to load toxic carrot bait..20 weeks after the operation”
521 7 Agency App. F “Notes accompanying..reported cases of poisoning in Surveillance [MAF publication] indicate several instances where stock had access to poisoned bait”
536 3 Agency App. F “A high strength 1080 gel (10%) is available to target deer and goats by applying the gel to leaves of preferred plant species”
537 1 Agency App. F “One non-target kill has been reported in association with the 10% gel, where one weka..was seen paralysed..and died 15 minutes later..proximity to area..indicated 1080 was the likely cause, with baits having slipped off treated leaf surface”
554 2 Agency App. G “It is noted that around 3% of all human Tb cases [in NZ] are M.bovis..this [is] equivalent to between 9 and 15 cases per year. The Ministry of Health attributes these low rates to herd testing and the widespread pasteurisation of milk”
555 1 Agency App. G “[human Tb] infection is stated by Regional Public Health to be due to M. Tuberculosis rather than M. bovis [and that] even if bovine Tb were prevalent in cattle it would not present a real risk to human health”
555 2 Agency App. G “The Agency considers that the benefits [to human health] proposed by the applicant, relating to the use of 1080 in controlling and eradicating Tb, are insignificant”
555 3 Agency App. G “the Agency does not consider that any potential increase[d] incidence of bovine Tb among cattle if 1080 were not used for vector control, would significantly impact on human health”
560 2 Agency App. H “only 3 [sheep] were used [in a study by Eason, et al., 1994 on 1080 in animal tissues], and there appeared to be considerable variability in the half-life in different animals”
563 3 Agency App. H “The Agency contends that consideration of fluorocitrate or of other metabolites [in meat] is not necessary and that consideration of the unchanged 1080 is what requires health risk assessment”
563 4 Agency App. H “Even in a fatally poisoned animal the latency period can be as long as 29 hours..for a sub-lethal dose, it must be possible for the animal to be asymptomatic, for a substantial is theoretically possible for a person to obtain the animal during the latency period and consider [it] to be in good condition [for meat]”
584 4 Agency App. J: Cullen “The [Applicant’s] statement..’there is no research that specifically links the enjoyment of recreational activities with the maintenance of healthy forest habitat and biodiversity’ indicates the applicant’s unfamiliarity with social science research”
631 1 Agency App. L: Current controls “The applicant [to the Ministry of Health, to apply 1080 in an area where public health is at risk] must specify the maximum and minimum time periods during which the majority of the bait may be toxic, after application. The person acting under delegation from the Authority..must be advised in writing, when baits have ceased to become toxic” (current control (pre-decision) therefore should be plenty of data on this)
659 1 Agency App. M “[the] limited occupational monitoring data..available suggested some occupational exposures were unacceptably high. The Agency was unable to determine whether this was due to the need for further controls or whether inadequate compliance..was responsible”
663 1 Agency App. M “The Agency considers that ideally, the most appropriate parameter for adverse effect is likely to occur in humans..would be the lowest toxic dose..however [this] has not been the Agency concluded the minimum lethal dose should be used instead..but..estimates of the doses of 1080 that have been taken by human cases of poisoning are rarely reported”
667 1 Agency App. M “The Agency concluded..that the..most sensitive target organ[s] are the male reproductive system (the testes and epididymides), so that the most sensitive population group are male adults..the degree of concern is higher with younger male adults..and notes this would be of great concern to families generally”
667 2 Agency App. M “The ADE [Acceptable Daily Exposure] is derived to protect the general population from chronic exposures, and..should normally be derived from a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study..there are no chronic toxicity studies for 1080”
674 1 Agency App. M “The applicants ..indicate..that workplace exposure monitoring  and quarterly biological exposure testing are carried out. No information on the results relating to the manufacture of Stock Solution was available to the Agency. The Agency expects the results would demonstrate whether or not the precautions taken are sufficient..assuming the company maintains an on-going review of the adequacy of precautions in place..the Agency considers that the controls are adequate to protect workers.”
674 2 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during the manufacture of cereal pellet baits was available..the data indicate that [this] may be associated with non-negligible health risks, which need to be assessed..this does not necessarily mean the other bait manufacturing activities..carried out in factories are necessarily free from similar risks, as no data on this were available… the Agency concluded that the controls relating to the manufacture of baits are sufficient to control worker exposures”
675 1 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during carrot bait manufacture and loading [indicates that this] may be associated with non-negligible health risks..the Agency identified the need for information on [the containment of systems where the toxin is applied to bait]..despite these uncertainties, the Agency considers that the controls are adequate to protect workers”
677 1 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during ground bait operations..[suggests this is] associated with relatively low exposures to 1080, although due to limitations of the monitoring this was not unequivocally demonstrated”
678 1 Agency App. M “The most comprehensive [occupational exposure] report available to the Agency reviewed results from..1998 [to] 2000 by Landcare Research..although the Agency is aware that other investigations have also been carried out” (no other studies described)
679 1 Agency App. M “Detailed description of the subjects was not provided [in the Landcare study on 1080 levels in workers]. Usually in operational health investigations some basic data are provided..such as..[age, nature of duties, nature of protective clothing, lifestyle aspects]..sampling times [were apparently] not in accordance with the Department of Labour..criteria.”
679 2 Agency App. M “The range of values [for 1080 factory workers’ urine samples] which exceeded the Biological Exposure Index [in 10 of 54 samples taken] was 1.33-227 times the BEI..4 out of 9 workers had at least one sample which exceeded the BEI”
680 2 Agency App. M “37 urine samples were taken from 3 aerial carrot operations..30% exceeded the BEI..9 out of 14 workers had at least one sample above the BEI”
680 1 Agency App. M “[100% of urine samples taken from ground-based workers laying 1080 paste bait] had detectable 1080 concentrations”
683 3 Agency App. M “In relation to whether or not 1080 may exert effects on the male reproductive system, a targeted investigation would be needed..the Agency emphasises that the absence of reports of adverse effects does not mean that no such effects are occurring”
684 1 Agency App. M “The Agency concluded that there is a limited amount that can be done to address the occupational exposures in an outdoor environment where workers cut open and empty bags into a is difficult to control dust [especially] in the vicinity of a helicopter”
685 1 Agency App. M “the Agency concluded that there is a limited amount that can be done to address the occupational exposures in an outdoor environment where workers load possibly dusty material into a hopper as a manual operation”
689 1 Agency App. M “The Agency did not assess the risk from dermal absorption because information on dermal absorption of 1080 is sparse”
693 1 Agency App. M “There may be some uncertainty associated with the [drinking water testing] results, when sample storage information is taken into account..Eason..refers to water samples being frozen ‘within 5 hours’ of collection..this seems a relatively long time before appropriate storage of the..sample was carried out, but it reflects the reality of sampling remote water sources and traversing the..area on foot”
694 1 Agency App. M “When the treatment area has involved the catchment for a public water supply..the intake is closed until a negative analysis has been confirmed” (takes no account of flooding or spread)
694 2 Agency App. M “Only rarely has analysis of the surface water resulted in the finding of..1080, after aerial dropping..even though inspection has shown that baits are not infrequently visible in streams”
695 1 Agency App. M “39 samples from drinking water supplies at the time of this report (Eason et al., 1999) were negative” (no consideration given to sample storage)
695 2 Agency App. M “The Agency considered..the only situation where [chronic exposure to 1080 in drinking water could occur] is where a stream is used to feed a small reservoir..[1080] would be subjected to some dilution as the reservoir would contain water [already] is most unlikely the peak level would be sustained in the stream..therefore the Agency reduced the concentration by a factor of 10..the projected [maximum dosage] therefore becomes, 0.05 μg/l..this value [is] higher than the Permissible Daily Exposure [for the 3-4 year old used in the Agency’s example, and for a formula fed] baby, the water intake in proportion to body weight would be even higher”
696 1 Agency App. M “standard controls will apply to address high risks, such as: No loaded aircraft will fly over reservoir lakes or feeding streams..intake for..public water supply will be disconnected from any streams arising in the treated area..any incident involving accidental distribution outside the drop zone will be notified (ignores effects of dust, floods and that streams arise from small tributaries)
699 1 Agency App. M “1080 is relatively soluble, so the likelihood of drinking water resides is relatively high”
699 2 Agency App. M “Since 1080 is highly water soluble, the Agency assumes that it would be difficult to remove by treatment processes”
700 3 Agency App. M “Weaver [2003, 2006] were cited by some submissions in support of the view that the existing PMAV is not appropriate from a regulatory perspective [largely because] developmental effects [in rats] may be due to endocrine disruption”
700 2 Agency App. M “The Agency understands that carcasses can reach waterways particularly after significant rain events and agrees there are some aspects which make this a higher risk in relation to drinking water contamination. In particular: a single carcass could [contain] a number of baits [and] the drinking water source may have already been declared free of contamination”
700 1 Agency App. M “The Agency compared both the acute and chronic exposures that could occur from aerial 1080 operations, based on the water sampling data that have been reported”
701 1 Agency App. M “The Agency identified 3 main scenarios that may give rise to meat containing 1080 residues. Farm animals..may accidentally get access to 1080..feral animals..taken by hunters may have been poisoned..or sub-lethally poisoned”
702 1 Agency App. M “If [an] animal, such as a deer, contained 1080 residues, [a] family could be exposed to residues on a regular basis until the contaminated meat from the single animal was consumed..[in which case] the dose rate is..for a 70kg adult..about 30 times the PDEfood [Permissible Daily Exposure in food]”
703 1 Agency App. M “Weaver, (2003) raised concern about..meat residues..due to his concern that developmental effects may occur via endocrine disruption”
703 2 Agency App. M “A conservative estimate is that milk from a contaminated animal could contain approximately 0.14 mg of 1080/litre. The application..suggests that milk residues are actually lower..but the Agency did not have the relevant information..The Agency expects that any potentially contaminated milk or products from it would be intercepted and destroyed”
704 1 Agency App. M “The Agency notes that the likelihood of a hunter taking game that has been poisoned with 1080 before the animal dies or completes excretion of the poison (which only takes about 48 hours) is remote”
705 1 Agency App. M “[In freshwater crayfish] tail muscle analysis gave ~ 1.5 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.25 mg/kg at Day 8, while for viscera analysis gave ~1.2 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.2 mg/kg at Day 8”
705 2 Agency App. M “If a child consumed [200g of contaminated koura] unacceptable risk level..might be possible”
706 1 Agency App. M “[calculations suggest] the risk from meat consumption for freshwater species may be higher than for terrestrial meat sources. The Agency considers this conclusion misleading. A prime aim of 1080 operations is to avoid deposition of baits into waterways”
706 2 Agency App. M “Broadleaf seedling residues 0.06 mg/kg 1080 at Day 10”
707 1 Agency App. M “Karamuramu leaf residues 0.0025 mg/kg at Day 14”
707 2 Agency App. M “The highest plant tissue level [of 4 plants] reported was Day 3 in rye grass..Possibly this sampling time is a bit long after exposure, but it has been used in the absence of other data to reflect possible residues”
708 1 Agency App. M “when exposed to 5 μg/ water..[Elodea] plants absorbed the 1080 from the solution to reach a maximum  concentration of 2.5 μg/kg before declining relatively slowly to below the limit of detection (2 μg/kg) at 24 hours”
708 2 Agency App. M “Considering the surface water analyses, the absorption [by Elodea canadensis] of 1080 from water containing 5 μg/l ..represents a relatively unlikely scenario”
709 1 Agency App. M “One honey sample was found with 15 ppb and this..declined to 3 ppb..after 59 days”
710 1 Agency App. M “The Agency has concluded that the occupational health risks associated with some 1080 manufacturing and use activities are potentially significant..this relates to factory workers..and field workers loading..treated carrot and cereal..pellet baits onto aircraft hoppers.. [the limited] available for review suggested some occupational exposures may be unacceptably high. The Agency was unable to determine whether this was due to the need for further controls”
711 1 Agency App. M “Estimates of some health risk[s] based on..the [Permissible Daily Exposure limits for food and water] in some cases appear unacceptable. The Agency considers an overall assessment of the risks needs to take into account the conservatism of the approach and the extremely unlikely nature of [such exposures]..when such an approach is taken the health risk estimates are considered insignificant”
874 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “New information on 1080 Maximum Acceptable Value in water will soon be available; defer decision to avoid having to re-visit the 1080 protocols” (Ministry of Health)
875 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “All exported New Zealand meat and pasteurized milk is tested and certified as Tb free”
875 2 Agency App. T: Submissions “I personally know of two employees of the local Pest Board who used to hand mix 1080 with carrot baits; one died at 38 with a brain tumour, and one developed serious cancer”
876 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “We recommend that in making its decisions, ERMA de-emphasise the importance of bovine Tb. From a health perspective, environmental degradation is far more important” (Regional Public Health, Hutt Valley District Health Board)
4 1 Applicants’ references “[1080 at sublethal doses inhibited reproduction in male and female fleas of 2 species and also had] some effect on adults developing from larvae that had eaten the faeces of fleas that contained poisoned blood” (Alekseev et al, 1971)
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
13 1 Applicants’ references “Histopathological changes were described in various organs such as the myocardium where replacement fibrosis became evident in animals which survived for more than 2 days” (Basson et al., 1982)
17 1 Applicants’ references “Fluoride intoxication leads to sudden cardiac death” (Boink et al., 1994)
42 1 Applicants’ references “600 micrograms given introperitoneally on the 9th day, causes eye anomalies, syndactylia and evisceration [in rat embryos]” (De Meyer & De Plaen, 1964)
54 1 Applicants’ references “1080-related findings ..were small testes and 0.25mg/kg/day..increases in heart weight were noted” (Eason et al., 2000)
75 3 Applicants’ references “Abnormal electrocardiograms were recorded from 13% of rabbits given the sub-lethal dose” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
89 1 Applicants’ references “Dietary  exposure to 0.80 ppm..1080 for 2 months prior to breeding severely impaired reproduction in the mink” (Hornshaw et al., 1986)
89 2 Applicants’ references “In young, rapidly growing ferrets, red and white blood cell counts were adversely affected by dietary concentrations of..1080 as low as 1.08 ppm” (Hornshaw et al., 1986)
89 3 Applicants’ references “The..LC50 test..revealed that young, rapidly growing [mink] may be unsuitable for tests..unless precautions are taken to assure they do not ‘outgrow’ potentially lethal concentrations” (1986)
99 1 Applicants’ references “We were certainly surprised to find that fingerling bream and bass would survive in 370 ppm for an indefinite period” (King & Penfound, 1946)
106 1 Applicants’ references “The simplest mechanistic hypothesis for the association of pesticides with Parkinson’s disease is that [they] or their metabolites are directly toxic to mitochondria” (Le Couteur et al., 1999)
121 1 Applicants’ references “[a boy poisoned with 1080] was resuscitated from cardiac arrest, but was left with severe neurological impairment” (McTaggart, 1970)
123 2 Applicants’ references “1080 adsorbs to cellulosic leaf litter, and persists in the litter for at least 3 months” (Meads, 1994)
136 3 Applicants’ references “If livestock become exposed to 1080 bait, a minimum withholding period of 5-10 days is advised” (Morgan & Eason, 2002)
147 1 Applicants’ references “We recommend further immediate monitoring, at the factories and aerial carrot sites, to ensure that improvements in procedures do reduce the 1080 exposure risk..the risk to worker health needs to be assessed by comparing measured daily exposures with acceptable maximum doses for chronic exposure derived from ongoing animal dietary exposure studies” (O’Connor et al., 2000)
155 1 Applicants’ references “A rabbiter who was repeatedly exposed [to 1080] developed renal failure and other organ damage” (Parkin et al., 1977)
169 1 Applicants’ references “The [poisoning] case was unusual in the very long time the rodenticide had been in the home, the mild nature of the poisoning, and the remarkably delayed onset of serious central nervous system symptoms. It demonstrates the need for even stronger control over the use of [1080, in the USA]”(Reigart et al., 1975)
173 1 Applicants’ references “Caged wild rabbits..were [repeatedly] fed sublethal doses of..1080..Results show that in some circumstances ‘1080’ can accumulate and that its elimination from the rabbit is a slow process” (Rowley, 1963)
177 2 Applicants’ references “Conversion of fluoroacetic acid to amino acids in the mammal..[after poisoning live mice and homogenates of organs of several mammals] several amino acids were formed..pig amino acid..1 mg of this amino acid was purified and contained 9.3% fluorine” (Schaefer & Machleidt, 1971)
178 1 Applicants’ references “In the subacutely and chronically intoxicated [with 1080] animals the multifocal myocardial lesions were more widespread” (Schultz et al., 1992)
181 1 Applicants’ references “The results demonstrate that [fluoroacetate] induces apoptosis or necrosis of male germ cells [in rats]” (Shinoda et al., 2000)
183 1 Applicants’ references “the rat is capable of splitting the C-F bond in [fluoroacetate] and/or in its metabolites, with subsequent skeletal storage and renal excretion of the released fluoride ion” (Smith et al., 1977)
183 2 Applicants’ references “The chronic administration of this low level [5 ppm of fluoroacetate in drinking water] caused an early but temporary retardation of termination of the experiment..the testes [showed] severe damage characterised by massive disorganisation of the tubules, nearly total loss of functional cells, absence of sperm and damage to the Sertoli cells” (Smith et al., 1977)
183 3 Applicants’ references “Fluoroacetate-induced changes in the fecundity and fertility of Bracon hebetor [wasp] females” (Smith & Grosch, 1985)
189 1 Applicants’ references “The rainfall pattern is an important factor in the weathering of poisoned rabbit baits but it is not possible to lay down specific rules about the time domestic stock should be kept off recently poisoned areas” (Staples, 1968)
191 1 Applicants’ references “cellular changes common to the 3 treatment groups [of rats receiving 2.2-20 ppm sodium fluoroacetate in drinking water] included altered appearance and decreased numbers of spermatids, and formation of spermatid and spermatocyte giant cells” (Sullivan et al., 1979)
197 1 Applicants’ references “there is a parallel between the observed effects of fluoroacetate ..and the metabolic actions of insulin” (Taylor et al., 1977)
201 1 Applicants’ references “Neither 1080 nor fluorocitrate are likely to promote oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects by binding to a mammalian [oestrogen receptor]..therefore..are unlikely to act as [endocrine disrupting chemicals] through this specific mechanism” (Tremblay et al., 2002)
202 1 Applicants’ references “Neither 1080 or fluorocitrate are likely to promote androgenic or anti-androgenic effects by binding to a fish or the human [androgenic receptor]..therefore..are unlikely to act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals through these specific mechanisms” (Tremblay et al. 2004)
217 1 Applicants’ references “Numerous cases of suspect accidental poisoning of livestock with..1080..occur in NZ every year” (Wickstrom & Eason, 1997)
1 1 Submitter 9371 “Hutt Valley Medical Officer of Health Stephen Palmer has stopped a planned airdrop of 1080 pellets over part of Tararua Forest Park which includes the water supply for..Featherston. His move follows allegations by two Wairarapa doctors that there have been unexplained ‘peaks’ in miscarriages following previous airdrops in the late 1970s, and in 1993 and 1994”
1 1 Submitter 8529 “I have personally witnessed the dead deer, pigs, and bird life..many of the poison pellets and victims were lying in the waterways”
1 1 Submitter 8139 “People of Oxford, Alabama, have been fighting for years to close down the production of [1080]..In 17 households duing the past 10 years, 21 members of their families died of cancer, cardiac irregularities and unexplained symptoms. Our family has lost 2 young men, both trained as pest control students..both died from..cancer..their manager..spoke up before his recent death to cancer of his real concern with 1080 and human contact. From 22 of his early students, 7 had died midlife”
2 2 Submitter 8529 “The U.S. Manufacturer’s instructions say 1080 should be kept out of waterways..[and] only used in secure bait stations and burrows in the ground”
3 1 Submitter 9143 “Invertebrate populations were assessed before, during, and after a 1080 poisoning operation in Whitecliffs Conservation Area, using pitfall traps from 21 June 1991 to 28 February 1993” (Meads, 1994) (Meads was diagnosed with cancer in 1995 and has passed away.)
105 1 Submitter 9074 “Doctors [who failed to see a victim during convulsions] would probably diagnose the death as a heart attack”
14 2 Committee Decision “Animals which consume a non-lethal dose generally recover within a short period of time”
42 4 Committee Decision “Overall, the potential benefits to human health of the continued use of 1080 appear to be minor”
55 1 Committee Decision “adverse effects [to human health, hunting and dogs] associated with aerial control can be adequately managed by the controls [and improved management regime]”
66 1 Committee Decision “Studies that specifically looked at endocrine disruption from 1080 did not however produce evidence of this” (very limited study, only 1 on males & females, 1 hormone receptor studied)
66 2 Committee Decision “No carcinogenicity studies have yet been carried out”
67 1 Committee Decision “it is unclear whether these exposures [of workers to 1080] were due to non-compliance”
67 2 Committee Decision “submitter claimed that two individuals [using 1080 concentrate in the field] had developed cancer”
67 3 Committee Decision “[when personal protective equipment is used in the manufacture of 1080 formulations] any adverse effects associated with occupational exposure to 1080 will not be significant”
68 2 Committee Decision “The Committee acknowledges [there are indications that for field workers] occupational exposure to 1080 from aerial operations is potentially significant”
68 3 Committee Decision “Provided these controls [use of protective equipment and good hygiene] are complied with, the Committee does not consider the occupational health risks [to field workers] to be significant”
69 1 Committee Decision “the controls on aerial application..are adequate to protect the public from exposure to 1080 baits”
70 1 Committee Decision “testing of samples of surface water sources and public supplies has not found concentrations of 1080 above the Ministry of Health’s PMAV”
72 3 Committee Decision “the potential health risk from consumption of contaminated wild freshwater food sources is..low”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
96 1 Committee Decision “The PMAV (Provisional Maximum Acceptable Value) represents the concentration of 1080 in water that, on the basis of present knowledge, is not considered to cause any significant risk to the health of the consumer over a lifetime of consumption of that water”
99 2 Committee Decision “Medical Officers of Health & DoC are able to set additional conditions on the use of..1080..this was considered to be a more effective way to manage signage..than requiring signs to be erected ‘at least 3 days’ before a substance is applied or laid”
126 2 Committee Decision “If a major spill into a waterway occurred, the spread may be uncontrollable”
128 3 Committee Decision “The risk [to Maori values and health] not subject to uncontrollable spread”
136 1 Committee Decision “There are no significant beneficial or adverse effects to human health and safety associated with the manufacture and handling of substances containing 1080”
136 2 Committee Decision “These workers [manufacturing and handling 1080 formulations] are voluntarily involved..and are personally responsible for minimising their exposures”
136 3 Committee Decision “The health hazard [1080 exposure identified by high levels of 1080 in urine] only applies to individual workers and is not unrestricted with respect to time nor does it spread in scope outside the immediate area of operation”
136 4 Committee Decision “It is unclear whether or not appropriate personal protective equipment and personal hygiene measures were in place when high urine values were found”
137 1 Committee Decision “exposures are only likely to arise when controls..are not complied with..compliance..should ensure adequate protection for workers”
140 1 Committee Decision “There is some uncertainty about the beneficial effects of enhanced enjoyment..of a healthy forest habitat and native biodiversity because of the uncertainty about the realisation of the environmental beneficial effect”
158 3 Committee Decision “the documentation provided with 1080 must include..the dose, concentration, or conditions of exposure likely to cause injury or ill health”
167 3 Decision App. A “Regulation 28 (2) requires that signs be least 3 days before a substance is applied..[indications are that] it was an impractical requirement which would not reduce risks to the public..The Committee is satisfied that regulation 28 (2) should be varied”
197 1 Decision App.B “The Committee..recommends..biological monitoring to monitor..compliance with controls [for workers]”