Bait Problems

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
350 8 Agency App. C “Persistence of 1080 baits on soil is dependent on rainfall, bait type and size. Baits can remain intact for several weeks”
357 6 Agency App. C “The information available on the disintegration and weathering of cereal baits has been almost invariably reported for one of two bait types..these names are largely historical and with one exception, are no longer manufactured. As such, the information presented..can only be considered as indicative for the current cereal bait formulations”
358 1 Agency App. C “[Bait type] 0.15% 1080 ‘DoC’ (no further information on type) [study on cereal baits]”
363 2 Agency App. C “Crayfish were observed..consuming the baits..there were no mortalities [in 8 days..highest residues were] 3.3 mg/kg in viscera and 5mg/kg in tail muscle..7.1 mg/kg total concentration [viscera & muscle]was measured in a larger bodied crayfish 4 days after exposure”
370 3 Agency App. C “At nearly 6 months..the remaining carcass still had dyed green bait in its stomach but <LOD (LOD not stated)”
375 4 Agency App. C “the information..on degradation and weathering of cereal baits [is almost all from two bait types..these names are largely historical longer manufactured..information..can only be considered indicative”
376 1 Agency App. C “At bore 2 [13 m downstream from a landfill where 12, 000 kg toxic bait was disposed of] 1 μg/L [1080 was found in groundwater 6 months later]”
376 2 Agency App. C “A year later [after 12, 000 kg of toxic bait was disposed of in a landfill] 20% of the original [concentration] remained at the top, and 7% at the bottom”
376 3 Agency App. C “The [1080-treated] oats remained toxic to rabbits for the duration of the trial (7 weeks) [Australian study]..the relevance of the loss of 1080 from oats under Australian conditions to those in NZ is unknown”
376 4 Agency App. C “small baits take up a greater amount of 1080 than larger baits”
377 1 Agency App. C “the rate of 1080 breakdown in baits in the field was assessed..analysis was complicated by: inconsistent recording of bait size; 1080 loading varying 0.08- 0.15%..rainfall and habitat not recorded in a way which allowed meaningful interpretation..bait type not always being recorded..small sample size (n=8 records for carrot bait)”
377 2 Agency App. C “The authors did conclude that most 1080 is leached from carrot bait after 200 mm natural rainfall..and noted that this was not consistent with the findings of Bowen..where there was no decrease in 1080 after 200 mm rain”
377 3 Agency App. C “The 1080 content of the large carrot baits gradually declined during exposure to 200mm rain..whereas no significant loss was observed from the smaller carrot baits.”
377 3 Agency App. C “There is no apparent reason for the observed differences [a decline in 1080 in large carrot bait pieces during rain but no loss from small pieces] but a number of environmental parameters were unreported for both studies”
380 1 Agency App. C “All [carrot] baits except 1-inch cubes at high rate had </= 10% original 1080 by end week 7”
380 2 Agency App. C “Overall greater 1080 retention by the large [carrot] bait at both concentrations”
380 3 Agency App. C “covered [carrot] baits showed little sign of degradation..”
380 4 Agency App. C “rapid decline [in 1080 concentration in cereal baits on turf under sprinklers]
381 2 Agency App. C “1080 was detected in soil under the baits after 20mm rain, reaching a maximum after 100mm and close to the LOD after 250 mm”
381 3 Agency App. C “Loss of <40% 1080 after 500 mm rain, indicating binding of 1080 to carrot”
381 4 Agency App. C “storage [of wet baits] at – 10oC prior to analysis..Thomas et al., 2004”
384 2 Agency App. C “[cereal] baits were analysed for 1080 at day 56 and found to contain <1% of the original amount [120 mm rainfall over 56 days]”
422 1 Agency App. C “Some ‘house’ bees died several hours after the start of the trial, having received toxic bait from the foragers”
470 1 Agency App. E “some baits observed [in] watercourses”
472 4 Agency App. E “the expected number of baits deposited in a stream cannot be assessed from stream size or bait application rate”
473 1 Agency App. E “the reason for so many non-detects in water monitoring..may be partly due to..rapid..dilution or loss of 1080 from, and disintegration of..baits within the first 12 hours of deposition..the author [Suren, 2006] recommends sampling within 4-8 hours..frequently resource consents require monitoring one day or more after..the operation”
473 2 Agency App. E “[number of baits found per 100m of stream (maximum)]..38”
475 1 Agency App. E “There is little, if any, current information on the proportion of baits that may end up lodged in the forest canopy where they may be consumed by birds and other non-target..species.”
475 2 Agency App. E “15% of [carrot] bait more than 5 mm in size caught in [the] canopy and dropped to the ground 10 days after the drop”
475 3 Agency App. E “Three aerial operations using cereal baits were monitored for dust drift in 1997 and 1998..The maximum deposition of 1080 falling in dust [from cereal bait] was 25.2 μg/m²..residues in dust inside all treatment areas were significantly greater than outside at day 1, but not at day 5”
475 6 Agency App. E “The Agency is not aware of any other studies reporting on dust drift from aerial application of 1080..there is insufficient information to know whether other bait types or delivery buckets would create more or less dust”
479 1 Agency App. F “significant improvements in carrot bait preparation and application technology..have reduced the numbers of birds killed.”
479 2 Agency App. F “There may still be issues with preparation to achieve consistent toxic loadings (eg on carrot bait)”
480 2 Agency App. F “Use of unscreened carrot, in rabbit control operations appears to disregard effects on non-native birds and other species.”
484 5 Agency App. F “in a series of 3 trials to evaluate the utility of screening the bait, all at a sowing rate of 40 kg/ha..177 dead birds were found (143 native)”
484 5 Agency App. F “One carrot operation in particular was reported to have had a significant impact on tomtits..and the brown creeper..the carrot bait..was unscreened and sown at 30 kg/ha”
484 7 Agency App. F “Reductions in sowing rates..the screening of carrot bait..and use of green die..have assisted in reducing impacts on birds”
484 8 Agency App. F “it is evident..that carrot bait may [have] inaccurate toxic loading, poor dye coverage..poor screening to remove chaff..the Agency does not have sufficient information to determine how frequently these problems..occur and what impacts they..have [on] pest control or on non-target species.”
485 1 Agency App. F “there does not appear to be [an] industry standard [for fine pieces of carrot bait], although the Agency does not have sufficient information to fully assess the matter, having only been provided with the standard operating procedure for one contractor used by the AHB (further information from the applicants, 22 December 2006)”
485 3 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council] does not screen bait used for rabbit control.”
485 4 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council’s] sowing rates for rabbit control (10 to more than 40 kg/ha) are much greater than that used for possum control, resulting in a significantly larger number of baits being available for ingestion by target and non-target species”
485 5 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council’s rationale for not screening and dense bait distribution]..native birds which could be deemed at risk, are not usually present in the type of country where rabbit control takes place.”
489 2 Agency App. F “Issues with preparation of carrot bait included poor uptake of dye..and adjustment of screen to reduce number of small particles passing through” (1994)
492 4 Agency App. F “wastage from carrot..[suggested] a higher proportion of chaff was not removed but was distributed with the bait” (1996)
495 1 Agency App. F “Whiteheads still occasionally found dead after 1080 operations even with improvements in preparation of bait”
502 1 Agency App. F “[approximate] numbers of dead birds found [after 1080 carrot poisoning]..35 with carrot>16mm..55 with unscreened carrot..85 with carrot <16mm”
503 5 Agency App. F “One dead [morepork] found [after screened carrot operation]; 1080 residues”
510 5 Agency App. F “Dust drift from the application of the baits was observed to contaminate the control site”
512 5 Agency App. F “The replacement of toxic [cereal] baits within a week of the first application resulted in a greater reduction in invertebrates, which was significant at day 18”
516 6 Agency App. F “reason for low concentration [of 1080 in carrot bait] unclear”
517 3 Agency App. F “up to 1.6 mg/kg [1080] in [leaf litter samples after hand-broadcast of cereal baits] on day of treatment and 7 days after, including from control plots. Plots too far apart to be contaminated accidentally. Reason potentially redistribution by animal movement”
521 4 Agency App. F “[poisoning of livestock occurred] when animals entered areas that had been treated with 1080 or as a result of accidental application of bait to stocked paddocks or return of stock to treated areas”
521 5 Agency App. F “cases included..150 sheep dying 10 weeks after toxic carrot had been laid in paddocks..78 sheep dying after grazing an airstrip used to load toxic carrot bait..20 weeks after the operation”
521 7 Agency App. F “Notes accompanying..reported cases of poisoning in Surveillance [MAF publication] indicate several instances where stock had access to poisoned bait”
525 1 Agency App. F “analysis of [carrot] bait indicated mean of 0.095% 1080 with high variability between samples”
532 1 Agency App. F “Reasons for lower than anticipated kill rates can include: bait shyness/aversion as a result of a prior sub-lethal [dose], ingestion of a less than lethal dose, poor masking of the smell of 1080, less than optimal toxic loading”
533 2 Agency App. F “repeated use of 1080 [for rats results in] learned aversion or bait shyness”
534 2 Agency App. F “There was very little information in the application regarding rabbit control..this species is not a key pest for either the AHB or DoC..2 bait strengths are currently approved..with sowing rates >40 kg/ha”
535 1 Agency App. F “Some rabbit populations in south-western Australia appear to be developing resistance to 1080 due to an over-reliance on a single control method”
535 2 Agency App. F “Resistance of rats and house flies to 1080 has also been reported”
537 1 Agency App. F “One non-target kill has been reported in association with the 10% gel, where one weka..was seen paralysed..and died 15 minutes later..proximity to area..indicated 1080 was the likely cause, with baits having slipped off treated leaf surface”
629 1 Agency App. L: Current controls “[Condition of permission issued by DoC for 1080 operations, in current controls] Caution period monitoring: Monitoring physical breakdown of bait and carcasses is required [for 1.5 g/kg 1080 carrots for control of possums and wallabies]” (information should therefore exist on this)
631 1 Agency App. L: Current controls “The applicant [to the Ministry of Health, to apply 1080 in an area where public health is at risk] must specify the maximum and minimum time periods during which the majority of the bait may be toxic, after application. The person acting under delegation from the Authority..must be advised in writing, when baits have ceased to become toxic” (current control (pre-decision) therefore should be plenty of data on this)
674 2 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during the manufacture of cereal pellet baits was available..the data indicate that [this] may be associated with non-negligible health risks, which need to be assessed..this does not necessarily mean the other bait manufacturing activities..carried out in factories are necessarily free from similar risks, as no data on this were available… the Agency concluded that the controls relating to the manufacture of baits are sufficient to control worker exposures”
675 1 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during carrot bait manufacture and loading [indicates that this] may be associated with non-negligible health risks..the Agency identified the need for information on [the containment of systems where the toxin is applied to bait]..despite these uncertainties, the Agency considers that the controls are adequate to protect workers”
677 1 Agency App. M “A limited amount of..testing of persons occupationally exposed to 1080 during ground bait operations..[suggests this is] associated with relatively low exposures to 1080, although due to limitations of the monitoring this was not unequivocally demonstrated”
680 1 Agency App. M “[100% of urine samples taken from ground-based workers laying 1080 paste bait] had detectable 1080 concentrations”
694 2 Agency App. M “Only rarely has analysis of the surface water resulted in the finding of..1080, after aerial dropping..even though inspection has shown that baits are not infrequently visible in streams”
700 2 Agency App. M “The Agency understands that carcasses can reach waterways particularly after significant rain events and agrees there are some aspects which make this a higher risk in relation to drinking water contamination. In particular: a single carcass could [contain] a number of baits [and] the drinking water source may have already been declared free of contamination”
706 1 Agency App. M “[calculations suggest] the risk from meat consumption for freshwater species may be higher than for terrestrial meat sources. The Agency considers this conclusion misleading. A prime aim of 1080 operations is to avoid deposition of baits into waterways”
710 1 Agency App. M “The Agency has concluded that the occupational health risks associated with some 1080 manufacturing and use activities are potentially significant..this relates to factory workers..and field workers loading..treated carrot and cereal..pellet baits onto aircraft hoppers.. [the limited] available for review suggested some occupational exposures may be unacceptably high. The Agency was unable to determine whether this was due to the need for further controls”
721 3 Agency App. N “Monitoring has indicated deaths of individual birds and modelling of exposure indicates that exposure to both bait fragments and to residues in bird’s food could be sufficient to cause effects”
722 4 Agency App. N “Improvements in bait quality/preparation..have contributed to fewer deaths of individual birds”
723 1 Agency App. N “Consideration needs to be given to ways to restrict fines in carrot bait.”
723 2 Agency App. N “Treated oats are not allowed due to high risk to non-target organisms. Consideration needs to be given to remove grain/oats as an acceptable bait..or to require greater evaluation of risks to non-targets before use”
723 3 Agency App. N “The Agency considers that further trials with bird repellent may be warranted given the problems with trials to date, that include lack of replication, issues with monitoring possum indices after the trials and less-than-toxic loading on the carrot”
723 9 Agency App. N “The Agency has insufficient information to evaluate the attractiveness of..baits to skinks and has made no quantitative assessment of the risks of 1080 to skinks” (geckos not mentioned)
724 1 Agency App. N “Deer are killed by 1080. Addition of deer repellents has been trialled, but monitoring of its effectiveness has been patchy and frequently inconclusive”
724 2 Agency App. N “No effects [on aquatic biota] are likely based on the number of baits that have been recorded falling into streams” (no consideration of small streams, ponds, 1080 loss during sample storage, poor data)
729 7 Agency App. N “A summary of birds known to consume either carrot or cereal [22 native and 7 introduced species listed]”
729 2 Agency App. N “The baits were screened, but not very well, with a high proportion of baits (31% by weight) <5 mm long” (1993)
734 1 Agency App. N “Analysis of the toxic carrot indicated a lower-than-target concentration of 0.072% 1080” (2005)
734 2 Agency App. N “Bird repellent was added at a nominal 0.2%..[then] measured at ~0.035% after baits had been sown (indicating less-than-adequate application of the repellent)” (2005)
735 1 Agency App. N “The AHB..considered..that the repellent did not deter birds as effectively as they considered desirable and therefore are not considering the use of the bird repellent further.”
743 1 Agency App. N “The analysis indicates that a relatively small proportion of a bird’s daily food intake could deliver a lethal dose through secondary poisoning and consumption of very small pieces of bait could deliver a lethal dose”
749 1 Agency App. N “Improvements in bait quality/preparation and reduced sowing rates have contributed to fewer deaths of individual birds, as indicated by monitoring results”
753 1 Agency App. N “A wide range of [invertebrate] species has been found feeding on all bait types”
753 2 Agency App. N “Palatability trials with possums, ship rats and Norway rats identified..DEET and..neem oil as the most palatable antifeedants, though McGregor et al (2004) noted some conflicting results”
754 1 Agency App. N “The Agency asked the applicants for an update on any on-going research on invertebrate repellents/antifeedants and was advised that they are not aware of any”
757 4 Agency App. N “The authors noted that the low numbers of deer seen in all blocks after the operation limited the ability to determine whether the decline in the repellent block was significantly different from the non-repellent block”
757 5 Agency App. N “The Agency requested further information on the operation from the applicants, but only received excerpts from the post-operational report from the contractor..the information provided in the excerpts is very limited in scope”
758 1 Agency App. N “the colour of the bait (green) is not maintained after the repellent has been applied”
798 1 Agency App. Q “a review of sowing bucket design and spread quality is in progress”
799 1 Agency App. Q “leaching from baits may have a greater effect on sub-optimal kill rates than loss of palatability”
799 2 Agency App. Q “The Agency considers that discussion with industry is required to develop a process for ensuring such changes in risk profile [from ageing baits] are appropriately assessed”
914 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “We strongly support continued use of unscreened 1080 carrot baits in areas with no native birds or other issues. The cost of screening is an extra burden on landowners” (Maniototo Pest Management Ltd)
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
19 1 Applicants’ references “Carrot baits were highly water-resistant and showed no decline in 1080..after 200 mm of rain. It is..inadvisable to use carrot bait in arid areas” (Bowen et al., 1995)
20 1 Applicants’ references “1080 concentration in the disposal pit [containing 12, 000 kg toxic bait] decreased to less than 10% of its original level in 12 months” (Bowman, 1999)
37 1 Applicants’ references “bait acceptance by possums living near forest margins at Waitaha is poorer than that recorded from possums living deep in the forest” (Coleman et al., 1999)
45 2 Applicants’ references “baits from one area contained a significant amount of 1080 for 6 weeks [bait type not specified]” (Eason et al., 1991)
65 1 Applicants’ references “Some workers monitored during the manufacture of 1080 baits, and during 3 cereal aerial carrot bait operations, had instances of above-BEI exposure..the..source..of exposure..cannot be identified from these results” (Fisher et al., 2002)
68 1 Applicants’ references “Data from aerial 1080 operations for the control of..possums in NZ show that estimates of the bait size and toxic concentration..derived from the mean parameters..will not be accurate” (Frampton et al., 1999)
69 1 Applicants’ references “We have been unable to demonstrate whether the higher toxic loading..was more effective in killing deer. Several other factors including the variation in the pre-control densities of both red deer and possums between the two treatment blocks..are likely to have affected our comparison” (Fraser & Sweetapple, 2000)
84 1 Applicants’ references “A significant proportion of brushtail possums..survive pest control operations using [1080]..bait needs eaten in amounts lethal to all possums” (Henderson et al., 1999)
87 1 Applicants’ references “Bait intake declined significantly when bait was poisoned with 1080” (Hone & Kleba, 1984)
90 2 Applicants’ references “This study has confirmed that..rats have the propensity of developing considerable genetic resistance to..[1080] (Howard et al., 1973)
91 1 Applicants’ references “It is recommended that age-susceptibility factors be considered in the development of standardized toxological protocols” (Hudson et al, 1972)
118 2 Applicants’ references “These figures [for the LD 50 for possums in Australia] are less than those obtained by the New Zealand Forest Service and bring into question which figures are valid for free roaming possums in the bush” (McIlroy, 1983)
119 1 Applicants’ references “The sensitivity of a species to 1080 poison is difficult to predict from toxicity data from other, closely related species” (McIlroy, 1986)
133 1 Applicants’ references “failure to encounter bait remains a likely reason for possums surviving aerial poisoning” ( Morgan et al., 1986)
133 3 Applicants’ references “Toxic [1080] carrot baits were rejected by 27.5% of possums” (Morgan, 1990)
133 4 Applicants’ references “A small proportion of a population may still not be targeted because of individual dislike of bait or failure to encounter baits because animals stayed in the forest canopy [during aerial operations for possums]” (Morgan , 1994)
135 1 Applicants’ references “Possums..[n=131] were offered sublethal baits followed by lethal baits 2 days later..most possums became bait shy..most retested after 3 months..were still shy” (Morgan et al., 1996)
138 1 Applicants’ references “Development of frequently poisoned possum..populations is becoming increasingly detrimental to the efficacy of pest control operations in New Zealand” (Moss et al., 1998)
142 1 Applicants’ references “At least 9 invertebrate orders are prone to 1080 poisoning. Invertebrates have been observed eating baits..their habitats are contaminated by residues leaching from baits, and from animal by-products and carcasses..1080 should not be used where susceptible invertebrate species or rare insectivores are found” (Notman, 1989)
146 1 Applicants’ references “[wild possums] from areas previously exposed to a 1080 control-operation avoided 1080 baits” (O’Connor et al., 1999)
151 1 Applicants’ references “bait shyness is a significant threat to the sustainable control of vertebrate pests” (Ogilvie et al., 2000)
151 2 Applicants’ references “Before poisoning, approximately 60% of the total bait consumption was of the type which 1080 was later presented in [cereal], whereas after poisoning this bait made up only 2-4% of total consumption (Ogilvie et al., 1996)
151 3 Applicants’ references “Karamuramu plants will take up 1080..the highest 1080 concentration measured was 5 ppb, in leaf material 7 days after bait placement” (Ogilvie et al., 2004)
152 2 Applicants’ references “In low rainfall areas, it may be appropriate to extend the withholding time until laboratory testing of weathered bait indicates it is safe to restock” (Orr & Bentley, 1994)
158 1 Applicants’ references “Circadian rhythms..have major influence on  susceptibility [of possums to 1080]..loss of appetite..[is] induced by sub-lethal doses..smell and taste aversion diminishes bait-eating when the toxic load is high” (Peters & Fredric, 1983)
163 1 Applicants’ references “An audit suggest[ed] that the other 50% of the expected [carrot] chaff was not screened out so was made toxic and distributed with the baits” (Powlesland et al., 1998)
186 1 Applicants’ references “wildlife managers need to know the chances of wild rare birds feeding on baits before approving poisoning operations where they occur” (Spurr, 1993)
189 1 Applicants’ references “The rainfall pattern is an important factor in the weathering of poisoned rabbit baits but it is not possible to lay down specific rules about the time domestic stock should be kept off recently poisoned areas” (Staples, 1968)
192 2 Applicants’ references “The fact that detritus was also present in the cages suggested that pollard baits may [be a] more favourable food item to crayfish than detritus” (Suren & Bonnet, 2004)
198 1 Applicants’ references “Compared with aerial treatment, the amount of [1080 used in bait stations] was reduced by more than 90%” (Thomas, 1994)
202 2 Applicants’ references “genetic differences between populations may have important implications for the control of possums, because Tasmanian possums have a greater resistance than mainland southeastern Australian possums to 1080” (Triggs & Green, 1989)
208 1 Applicants’ references “These findings suggest that genetic resistance to 1080 is developing in at least some populations of Australian rabbits” (Twigg et al., 2002)
223 1 Applicants’ references “A maximum concentration of 25.2 μg 1080 mˉ² was detected in [cereal] bait dust..within the control zone..lower concentrations were found outside treatment areas..there were detectable short-term 1080 residues in water, plant, leaf litter and soil samples after 2 of the 3 baiting operations” (Wright et al., 2002)
2 2 Submitter 8529 “The U.S. Manufacturer’s instructions say 1080 should be kept out of waterways..[and] only used in secure bait stations and burrows in the ground”
3 1 Submitter 9078 “the manufacturer makes quite specific recommendations about the use of the baits treated with this poison: as a ground baiting toxin only..avoidance of availability to the general public is urged as is the need for careful disposal of the bodies of poisoned pests”
13 1 Submitter 9143 “Observation on the day of the poison operation showed that the fine particles and dust were blown across the forest canopy from the helicpter bait bucket” (Meads report)
22 1 Submitter 9156 “DOC explained that when the carrots are cut the small pieces of chaff stick to the baits in the carrot juice and are not removed by screening”
58 2 Committee Decision “the baits cover only a small proportion of the total treatment area and..while 1080 will leach from baits during rain, any effect will be highly localised and will not persist over time”
59 4 Committee Decision “bait deposited in water results in extremely low concentrations of 1080 and the organisms would be able to metabolise/excrete the substance over a short period”
60 2 Committee Decision “improvements in bait application technology..such as..improved design of bait hoppers..have led to a reduction in the amounts of bait likely to be deposited in small water bodies”
62 2 Committee Decision “DoC imposes specific requirements regarding the size of carrot bait”
62 3 Committee Decision “The Committee..believes that all carrot bait should be of a minimum size and screened to remove small pieces prior to use”
64 3 Committee Decision “low sowing rates of bait in forest environments reduce the likelihood of lizards and frogs being exposed”
64 6 Committee Decision “The Committee has amended the control on the use of carrot bait to ensure that it is screened to remove small pieces [which will help to adequately manage the risks to native lizards and frogs]”
69 1 Committee Decision “the controls on aerial application..are adequate to protect the public from exposure to 1080 baits”
83 4 Committee Decision “work is being done on the improvement of bait to ensure that a lethal dose is delivered to the target animal. This is consistent with the Authority’s ethical framework which requires that account be taken of concern for animal welfare”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
100 1 Committee Decision “signs must remain for at least a minimum period of six months or until the earlier retrieval of the bait, or it is demonstrated that the bait [including bait in carcasses] has ceased to be toxic”
102 1 Committee Decision “bait [must have a mean weight of] 6g or larger” (a measure of variation should be used)
104 1 Committee Decision “The requirements [for mean 6g bait and <1.5% chaff] do not..apply when the carrot bait is being used for rabbit control through ground-based application”
116 1 Committee Decision “warning signs must remain in place for 6 months or until it can be demonstrated that baits and carcasses no longer present a risk to dogs”
126 4 Committee Decision “the existing and new controls..[adjust level of risk to frogs and lizards]” (none of the controls addresses prey switching by predators, eating of baits or secondary poisoning)
133 2 Committee Decision “three significant risks..with aerial 1080..[2] effects on native mammals (bats) following direct exposure to pellets and coated baits” (omitted secondary poisoning)
170 1 Decision App. A “[legal bait specifications]..Blue or green…maximum concentration 2g 1080 per kg, chaff..less than 1.5% of the total weight”
170 2 Decision App. A “bait must be screened so that bait has a mean weight of 6g or larger”
171 1 Decision App. A “There have also been problems with attaining a green colour in certain bait formulations”
171 2 Decision App. A “[regulations on bait size and chaff] The requirements do not..apply when the carrot bait is being used for rabbit control through ground-based application”
195 2 Decision App. B “Compliance with best practice for preparation and distribution of bait minimises risks [to native birds]”
195 4 Decision App. B “Minimum carrot size and chaff content [reduces risks to native bats]”
196 1 Decision App.B “Compliance with best practice for preparation and distribution of bait minimises risks [to frogs & lizards]”
199 1 Decision App.B “There is major uncertainty around the impact of deer repellent in terms of its effectiveness in reducing by-kill of deer”