Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
17 Landcare: Ataria “…protecting the forests’ biodiversity with a poison was contradictory to fundamental Maori beliefs”
349 13 Agency App. C “Data gaps..reproductive toxicity to birds” (lizards, invertebrates, frogs, bats, fish not studied either)
349 3 Agency App. C [toxicity to terrestrial vertebrates: all 1080 formulations classified as 9.3B or higher, 9.3A]
416 1 Agency App. C “A number of frogs died during the study, including one of two control Archey’s frogs which contained 1.4 mg 1080/kg”
416 5 Agency App. C “No data are available on the toxicity of 1080 to native NZ reptiles (geckoes, skinks and tuatara)”
423 2 Agency App. C “Species [of ant] choice based on difficulty in maintaining the forest ant Huberia brouni under laboratory conditions”
479 4 Agency App. F “There are clearly benefits to many native fauna from the use of 1080 over large areas of forest in reducing predation pressure, and in reducing competition for food”
480 5 Agency App. F “The applicants provided very brief results from the monitoring of effects on non-target native species”
480 6 Agency App. F “much of the monitoring data [on non-target species] presumably exists within various contractual operational reports and is not available to the Agency..the Agency assumes the information likely to be representative of current investigations, and in some cases demonstrates an improvement in practice over time”
484 1 Agency App. F “Deaths of..birds have been reported frequently after pest control operations, but generally do not give any indication of potential effects at a population level”
484 5 Agency App. F “in a series of 3 trials to evaluate the utility of screening the bait, all at a sowing rate of 40 kg/ha..177 dead birds were found (143 native)”
484 5 Agency App. F “One carrot operation in particular was reported to have had a significant impact on tomtits..and the brown creeper..the carrot bait..was unscreened and sown at 30 kg/ha”
484 7 Agency App. F “Reductions in sowing rates..the screening of carrot bait..and use of green die..have assisted in reducing impacts on birds”
485 2 Agency App. F “The Agency is unaware of information on the effects of 1080 operations on game birds”
485 3 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council] does not screen bait used for rabbit control.”
485 4 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council’s] sowing rates for rabbit control (10 to more than 40 kg/ha) are much greater than that used for possum control, resulting in a significantly larger number of baits being available for ingestion by target and non-target species”
485 5 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council’s rationale for not screening and dense bait distribution]..native birds which could be deemed at risk, are not usually present in the type of country where rabbit control takes place.”
485 6 Agency App. F “treated oats are also used for rabbit control and their use on land under DoC management is not allowed due to the high risk to non-target native species”
485 7 Agency App. F “Dead [moreporks] have been reported following 1080 operations”
486 1 Agency App. F “Harrier hawks have been observed feeding on..poisoned possums.. kea..[feed on] poisoned thar”
500 4 Agency App. F “Tui: significant increase on all transects; greater in the operational area than control”
509 1 Agency App. F “Animals that include large proportions of flowers, fruit and seed in their diets may benefit [from sustained control of possums and ungulates]..possums and rats may..affect food availability” (no evidence given)
509 2 Agency App. F “increased abundance of tui and silvereyes [on Rangitoto Island 8-9 years after eradication of possums and wallabies]..the abundance of insectivorous and seed-eating birds did not increase [possibly because of] the ongoing presence of ship rats, stoats and cats”
509 3 Agency App. F “Additional seed produced [after browsing animals were removed from Rangitoto Island] may have led to increased seed consumption by rodents..[which] also consume large quantities of invertebrates, also reducing the resources available to birds”
510 1 Agency App. F “Numbers of kaka, kereru and brown creeper increased [with increasing number of years of possum colonisation from 10-30 years] despite reliance of kaka and kereru on possum-preferred species”
519 2 Agency App. F “Snail abundance..P. Gilliesi..1.5/100m²..P. Hochstetteri 0.7 to 1.3 per 100m²..Snails take about 3 years before young big enough to detect [numbers counted 2 x in Parapara, 5 x in Gouland Downs, 5 x in Burnett Range]”
527 6 Agency App. F “[Landsborough Valley..40 years of possum presence] fuchsia and wineberry in good condition”
530 1 Agency App. F “impacts of deer may not be reversible [e.g.] where palatable species remain highly browsed even at low deer densities; occupation of niches by unpalatable species; local extinction of seed sources; alteration of succession pathways; shifts in ecosystem processes” (this would also apply to possums)
533 4 Agency App. F “the anticipated benefits of possum and rodent control may result in unforeseen impacts on highly valued species through prey switching, [eg] decreased rodent numbers..leading to increased stoat predation on birds”
534 5 Agency App. F “best practice guidelines indicate that treated oats are..particularly unreliable when aerially applied..The Otago Regional Council indicated that it used more than..4 tonnes of oats in 2006 [and 500 tonnes of carrot]”
534 6 Agency App. F “Prey switching by cats and ferrets from rabbits to other species may occur following rabbit operations, with native skinks highly vulnerable to large swings in rabbit numbers”
583 1 Agency App. J: Cullen “[the effect on tourism] could become large if New Zealand fails to maintain healthy forests and native biodiversity”
584 4 Agency App. J: Cullen “The [Applicant’s] statement..’there is no research that specifically links the enjoyment of recreational activities with the maintenance of healthy forest habitat and biodiversity’ indicates the applicant’s unfamiliarity with social science research”
721 1 Agency App. N “Evaluation of literature on the effects of [1080] usage [is] complicated due to the variable reporting of the 1080 formulation used”
721 2 Agency App. N “It is recommended that all reports and papers relating to research and monitoring should include the trade name of the product being evaluated”
721 3 Agency App. N “Monitoring has indicated deaths of individual birds and modelling of exposure indicates that exposure to both bait fragments and to residues in bird’s food could be sufficient to cause effects”
721 4 Agency App. N “Risks [of 1080] to bird populations [are] dependent on..dispersal abilities..breeding strategies..and..abundance”
722 1 Agency App. N “Key bird species have been subject to increased monitoring and no direct population level impacts attributable to 1080 poisoning have been identified”
722 2 Agency App. N “there have been instances where the use of 1080 has not been effective in effective in managing the risks of predation”
722 3 Agency App. N “Deaths of tomtits and robins have frequently been reported after aerial 1080 operations..but..are capable of wide dispersal and have a high reproductive capacity”
722 5 Agency App. N (no mention of possible effects on rare species of birds, or secondary poisoning of birds, in the Agency’s Exposure and Risk Assessment on non-target species)
722 4 Agency App. N “Improvements in bait quality/preparation..have contributed to fewer deaths of individual birds”
724 3 Agency App. N (whole groups of organisms have been omitted from the Agency’s Exposure &  Risk Assessment, including ferns, mosses, freshwater molluscs, fungi, geckos, as well as habitats, including swamps, ponds, slow-flowing streams, groundwater, pine forests)
729 not used Agency App. N “In circumstances where threatened species are perceived as being at risk of exposure to 1080 baits, palatability trials using toxic and non-toxic baits may be undertaken in advance of an aerial 1080 operation to determine the most suitable bait type”
729 7 Agency App. N “A summary of birds known to consume either carrot or cereal [22 native and 7 introduced species listed]”
729 3 Agency App. N “Caged kaka at the Wellington Zoo were given carrot treated with pyranine with no signs of any aversion to the treatment”
729 6 Agency App. N “[droppings from] a number of different species showed fluorescence [after dye was added to carrot bait], including: 10/87 weka droppings; one kereru, one small passerine, one weta”
743 2 Agency App. N “Populations of birds which are able to disperse over wide areas are more likely to be able to recolonise areas where numbers may have been reduced [by 1080]”
744 1 Agency App. N “Bellbird, Tui [among birds with good dispersal capacity for recovery after 1080 operations]”
744 2 Agency App. N “In theory, populations of birds with higher reproductive capacity are more likely to recover from an impact [of 1080] than those with a lower capacity, however a large number of other factors may also influence recovery”
746 1 Agency App. N “the [bird] monitoring results available to the Agency at the time of this review are likely to be incomplete”
748 6 Agency App. N “Key species [of birds] have been subject to increased monitoring and no direct population level impacts attributable to 1080 poisoning have been identified”
759 2 Agency App. N “Blue-green algae showed effects [of 1080] at about 1 μg/l..If algae were adversely affected, the duration of any effects would be short given the high cell turnover and capacity to re-colonise/re-establish after an impact”
851 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Following the 1996 1080 operation it took 5-8 years for hawks, and moreporks to recover. In 2004 (after another 1080 aerial operation)..bird song diminished to almost nothing and has yet to return”
851 2 Agency App. T: Submissions “Bush poisoned more than once by 1080 has remained virtually silent”
852 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “As a landowner..I have noticed an almost complete disappearance of all living fauna after each 1080 drop. The possums, rabbits and rats are the first to recover, the birds have still not recovered.”
863 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “In areas where 1080 has been used heavily you will not find native hawk, owls, moreporks”
864 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Hawks and native falcon actively scavenge on dead rabbits post poison, but are not killed” (Otago Regional Council)
90 1 Applicants’ references “NZ has a multiplicity of important ecologically challenging, animal control problems that must be seen to be believed..However, where enough soil has remained..a new and stable equilibrium of the animal-vegetation-soil complex has developed..a long-term objective toward the noxious animal problem is to strive for habitat stability” (Howard, 1965)
93 2 Applicants’ references “Ecological consequences derive from both mammal population reduction..and..using toxins..Scientists [in NZ] have not examined the net ecological outcomes..key conservation legislation demands that [managers] do so” (Innes & Barker, 1999)
93 3 Applicants’ references “a food web could be a useful conceptual framework to generate hypotheses about toxin [1080 and brodifacoum] movement through communities..explore net outcomes of pest control at the community level..[and] to sharpen objectives for ecosystem restoration” (Innes & Barker, 1999)
123 3 Applicants’ references “Comparison of the Whitecliffs data with that of other lowland podocarp/broadleaf forests over one year, shows that 1080 has a severe impact on many other invertebrates. At Whitecliffs, insect larvae, comprising coleoptera, hymenoptera, diptera and lepidoptera dropped dramatically from July through to October, then stabilised for the rest of the year at the crash level. Insect larvae in other forests followed the normal pattern of continual rise from July until the onset of the following winter” (Meads, 1994)
142 1 Applicants’ references “At least 9 invertebrate orders are prone to 1080 poisoning. Invertebrates have been observed eating baits..their habitats are contaminated by residues leaching from baits, and from animal by-products and carcasses..1080 should not be used where susceptible invertebrate species or rare insectivores are found” (Notman, 1989)
186 1 Applicants’ references “wildlife managers need to know the chances of wild rare birds feeding on baits before approving poisoning operations where they occur” (Spurr, 1993)
192 1 Applicants’ references “No major changes to the [aquatic] invertebrate communities was observed, except for a decrease in the total number of taxa collected in some streams 5 days after the [1080] drop.. [and a] slight decline in the EPT taxa collected 5 days after the drop. Such decreases were not evident at the control site” (Suren & Lambert, 2002)
2 1 Submitter 8606 “I am a retired Conservator of Wildlife ..have been opposed to the bulk sowing of 1080 since the late 50s and early 60s..when I witnessed its obvious ability to kill other than the target species in large numbers. Its use on rabbits decimated the huge quail and chukor population of Central Otago as well as every other species of ground bird, hawks, moreporks and falcons that were attracted to the baits, the dead rabbits and the secondary kill of rats and insects etc.”
2 1 Submitter 8952 “[quoting respected ornitholgist the late Robert Falla] ‘a number of native species have slow reproductive rates, poor recovery prospects and their numbers are precariously balanced at the best of times”
17 1 Submitter 9143 “It would be reasonable to assume that populations of those insects with short life cycles (springtails) would recover far more quickly than those that have life cycles of 3 years and more (some beetles, cicadas, hepialid moths)” (Meads report)
29 1 Submitter 9074 “Around here [Rocky Mountains] the poisoners have wiped out weasel, marten, mink, fox, badger..I blame the 1080 poison. They say it’s only dangerous to canine species, but that’s just not true”
72 1 Submitter 9198 “scientific research supporting [DoC’s] claims [mostly] reaches only the lowest levels of control quality. Statistics are often poorly done, absent or selectively reported. The studies are short term and narrow in scope. There is not one randomized, blind treatment. Results are frequently misrepresented and distorted often with obvious bias. There are numerous errors of inference, omission and commission. Roughly half of the studies are only published internally..mostof the others are published in a single journal, the NZ J Ecology. There is only one study that appreaed in a peer reviewed international journal…The entire lot, excepting one or two, was produced by researchers who are financially dependent on DoC’s good will” (Whiting-O’Keefe review)
72 2 Submitter 9198 “There is not a single credible study showing that aerial 1080 pest control is either benficial to or necessary for NZ’s native forests or their inhabitants” (Whiting-O’Keefe review)
72 3 Submitter 9198 “The net overall effect of aerial 1080 on our forests and forest ecosystem cannot be determined” (Whiting-O’Keefe review)
146 1 Submitter 9074 “The Leopold Board made several recommendations for reform. It called for the establishment of a permanent advisory board of predator and rodent control, and representation by a ‘wide spectrum of opinions’..It suggested that the [US] Fish and Wildlife Service reassess its own goals ‘in the light of changing public attitudes toward wildlife’..It called for sharp federal controls on the use of 1080..when secretary Udal accepted the Leopold Report in March, 1964, and announced it would become..policy..Sheepmen yelled bloody murder, and descended on their congressmen in bus-loads”
194 1 Submitter 9074 “The [US] 1080 poisoning programme went on for a few years, until the predators and raptors were almost gone. The bald and golden eagles that had been common in the valley were seen only rarely, and hilltops that had rung with the howls of coyotes now were still and silent..Then the rodents hit the valley like a horde of locusts. With hardly any meat-eaters left to control their sharply multiplying numbers, the rodents popped up everywhere”
21 1 Committee Decision “[hunters who made submissions] spoke about the damage being done to deer and wild pig populations”
31 2 Committee Decision “The Committee…notes the wealth of relevant research..about the impact of 1080 on important species”
35 4 Committee Decision “Regional Councils and DoC have statutory responsibilities for conserving biodiversity values”
38 1 Committee Decision “[Biodiversity benefits of protecting vulnerable plant species]” (heading – under Environmental benefits)
38 2 Committee Decision “few submitters disputed the benefits to vulnerable plants and New Zealand’s overall biodiversity from the use of 1080 to control possums”
38 3 Committee Decision “The Committee heard from..submitters..regarding increased flowering and vegetative growth of plants such as mistletoe following aerial applications..they reported a lack of seedling regeneration on plots accessible to deer compared to plots which excluded them” (listed under ERMA’s Biodiversity benefits of 1080)
39 1 Committee Decision “vegetation monitoring data obtained in association with aerial 1080 operations does, however, support the applicants’ assertions that native ecosystems benefit significantly”
44 1 Committee Decision “The Committee received evidence at the hearings that possums..had created an ‘imbalance’ which placed our unique biodiversity at risk”
44 2 Committee Decision “The pervasive damage caused to native flora and fauna species by these pests [possums] poses a significant threat to their ongoing survival”
56 1 Committee Decision “well-managed ground control operations using 1080 present a relatively low risk to the environment and indigenous biodiversity”
60 1 Committee Decision “while algae are particularly sensitive, the ability of algae to recolonise after an impact is a significant mitigating factor”
74 1 Committee Decision “There is evidence that, if left unchecked, the browsing pest problem could devastate our native biodiversity”
74 2 Committee Decision “The applicant and many submitters recognised that of the substances currently available..1080 is one of the safer and more effective options”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
101 1 Committee Decision “Regulation 50 [concerned with protecting terrestrial vertebrates] is deleted…the benefits of using soluble concentrate..mixed with oats justify deleting the regulation”
126 3 Committee Decision “Risks [to bats, native birds, frogs and lizards] are generally well understood by users of…1080 and can be managed”
140 1 Committee Decision “There is some uncertainty about the beneficial effects of enhanced enjoyment..of a healthy forest habitat and native biodiversity because of the uncertainty about the realisation of the environmental beneficial effect”
195 3 Decision App.B “Risk to threatened species is rated higher as loss of a few individuals may affect the viability of a species”