Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
294 1 Agency App. B “1080 can..cause reproductive toxicity in male mammalian species”
294 6 Agency App. B “a multigenerational reproductive study is desirable to clarify the extent of the reproductive toxicity hazard”
294 7 Agency App. B “effects [on reproduction] have been assumed to be serious and relevant to human exposures”
294 8 Agency App. B “Other data on 1080 that would be desirable are..studies on dermal absorption, acute inhalation and..the reversibility of effects on the male reproductive system”
310 1 Agency App. B “no studies [on reproductive toxicity] are available which compl[y] with international guidelines”
310 2 Agency App. B “The [reproductive toxicity] studies carried out in rats [by Wolfe..and Eason & Turk] [did not comply with international guidelines and] their study designs were ..not able to measure reduced fertility]”
310 3 Agency App. B “A multi-generation study would be highly desirable to confirm the reduced male fertility, and to investigate whether or not there are toxic effects [on female reproduction]”
311 1 Agency App. B “a multigeneration study would..investigate whether 1080 is able to cause any effect on the female reproductive process. The oestrus cycling investigation in the 90-day study [carried out for Landcare by MPI Research, Michigan, p 312] is totally inadequate in this respect.”
311 2 Agency App. B “Studies on the reversibility of the male reproductive toxicity are highly desirable”
311 3 Agency App. B “the Agency is of the view that further investigations on the reproductive toxicity of 1080 are desirable due to the severity of the effects found”
312 1 Agency App. B “The Agency does not have the full study report of the investigation carried out for Landcare..but carried out this assessment based on the summary in the paper, Eason & Turk”
312 2 Agency App. B “The method [used to study oestrus cycle effects, carried out for Landcare] is not one documented in any international guidelines”
312 3 Agency App. B “the low dose males (0.025 mg [1080] /kg  bw/day) had slightly raised mean testes weights..presumably as a result of random statistical variation”
312 4 Agency App. B “Severe decreases in the sperm counts were found. Sperm motility was reduced to 0%, and[an] increase in abnormal sperm (to 99%) was reported [in rats receiving 0.25mg 1080 per kg bw/day for 90 days]”
312 5 Agency App. B “In the [56 day] recovery improvement in the semen parameters [or testes weights]..was apparent”
313 1 Agency App. B “OECD guideline..states complete spermatogenic cycle takes approximately 70 days in the rat. Therefore the [56 day] recovery period used in this study [for Landcare] may be too short”
313 2 Agency App. B “the evidence suggests that after prolonged exposure to 1080, recovery of the male testes and spermatogenesis is unlikely”
313 3 Agency App. B “[female mink fed 0.8ppm 1080 per day showed] a significant reduction in body weight..[of two successfully mated]..only one produced kits..these kits did not survive to the 3rd week post-partum”
313 4 Agency App. B “The fertility of mink fed a diet containing 0.8 ppm of 1080 was greatly reduced. Toxic effects on the testes..resulting in an absence of sperm was the apparent cause of the reproductive failure”
314 1 Agency App. B “[In the 0.2 ppm dose per day group of mink], whelping was reduced to 7/12 (58%)”
314 3 Agency App. B “This study is unique in providing some evidence of reproductive effects that may be due to an effect on the maternal animals.”
314 4 Agency App. B “Young male ferrets were found to have lower testes weights when treated with 1080..even though the organs were at an early developmental age”
315 1 Agency App. B “[chronic exposure of male rats to drinking water with 26 ppm sodium fluoroacetate] showed advanced atrophy with loss of the normal ordered structure [of the testes]”
315 2 Agency App. B “Cellular changes common to all treatment groups [of rats receiving 0.07mg 1080/kg bw/day or higher doses, in drinking water, for 7 days] consisted of altered appearance, reduced numbers of spermatids, and presence of both spermatid and spermatocyte giant cells”
316 1 Agency App. B “[in rats exposed to 20 ppm 1080 in drinking water for 7 days]..there were patchy degenerative changes in the testes, including multinucleated spermatagonia”
317 1 Agency App. B “The report of the first stage [Meikle et al., 1996 Landcare report on health and reproductive perfomance in sheep] was not available for review by the Agency”
317 2 Agency App. B “Almost half (21) of the sheep died [after a single dose of 0.25-0.3 mg/kg bw 1080]..the surviving animals formed the study population”
318 1 Agency App. B “Effects on semen quality and the testis have been demonstrated in rats after a single and small number of acute doses. In longer term tests, the effects are very clear and reversibility..has not been demonstrated”
333 2 Agency App. B “The Agency found no general explanation..for the chronic and reproductive effects of 1080”
335 1 Agency App. B “neither fluoroacetate or fluorocitrate bind competitively to..androgen [or] oestrogen receptors to a significant degree..the mechanism for [reproductive and developmental effects] remains unknown”
345 3 Agency App. B “1080 triggers the 6.8A [highest level of toxicity] classification [for reproductive toxicity], and this classification is triggered for mixtures containing 0.1% or more of 1080”
349 14 Agency App. C “monitoring information [on reproductive toxicity to birds] is limited by factors such as short pre-operational observation period, seasonal fluctuations”
349 13 Agency App. C “Data gaps..reproductive toxicity to birds” (lizards, invertebrates, frogs, bats, fish not studied either)
386 1 Agency App. C “NOEC [in a British earthworm species] cocoon production 50 mg/kg dw soil”
398 1 Agency App. C “[testes, liver, kidney and thymus weights of young ferrets decreased following 1.08-3.5 mg/kg diet 1080 for 28 days]”
414 1 Agency App. C “The Agency has not been able to locate any data from standard tests on the reproductive toxicity of 1080 to birds”
415 1 Agency App. C “[1080 doses [100 or 250 mg/kg bw] in an Australian lizard reduced testosterone levels and there was degeneration of reproductive structures]”
427 2 Agency App. C “1-2 [days after treatment] no mature eggs..misshapen and collapsed oocytes…yolk deficient [wasps dosed with 0.025-0.063 mg/kg bw 1080]”
667 1 Agency App. M “The Agency concluded..that the..most sensitive target organ[s] are the male reproductive system (the testes and epididymides), so that the most sensitive population group are male adults..the degree of concern is higher with younger male adults..and notes this would be of great concern to families generally”
683 3 Agency App. M “In relation to whether or not 1080 may exert effects on the male reproductive system, a targeted investigation would be needed..the Agency emphasises that the absence of reports of adverse effects does not mean that no such effects are occurring”
722 3 Agency App. N “Deaths of tomtits and robins have frequently been reported after aerial 1080 operations..but..are capable of wide dispersal and have a high reproductive capacity”
723 5 Agency App. N “Given the low reproductive rate of <1 young/adult female per year there is little scope for the populations [of bats] to sustain the loss of many individuals”
744 2 Agency App. N “In theory, populations of birds with higher reproductive capacity are more likely to recover from an impact [of 1080] than those with a lower capacity, however a large number of other factors may also influence recovery”
745 1 Agency App. N “Bellbird, Tui [among birds with high reproductive capacity for recovery after 1080 operations]”
4 1 Applicants’ references “[1080 at sublethal doses inhibited reproduction in male and female fleas of 2 species and also had] some effect on adults developing from larvae that had eaten the faeces of fleas that contained poisoned blood” (Alekseev et al, 1971)
89 1 Applicants’ references “Dietary  exposure to 0.80 ppm..1080 for 2 months prior to breeding severely impaired reproduction in the mink” (Hornshaw et al., 1986)
127 1 Applicants’ references “Fluoroacetic acid is a potent and specific inhibitor of reproduction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans” (Middendorf & Dusenbery, 1993)
181 1 Applicants’ references “The results demonstrate that [fluoroacetate] induces apoptosis or necrosis of male germ cells [in rats]” (Shinoda et al., 2000)
183 2 Applicants’ references “The chronic administration of this low level [5 ppm of fluoroacetate in drinking water] caused an early but temporary retardation of termination of the experiment..the testes [showed] severe damage characterised by massive disorganisation of the tubules, nearly total loss of functional cells, absence of sperm and damage to the Sertoli cells” (Smith et al., 1977)
183 3 Applicants’ references “Fluoroacetate-induced changes in the fecundity and fertility of Bracon hebetor [wasp] females” (Smith & Grosch, 1985)
191 1 Applicants’ references “cellular changes common to the 3 treatment groups [of rats receiving 2.2-20 ppm sodium fluoroacetate in drinking water] included altered appearance and decreased numbers of spermatids, and formation of spermatid and spermatocyte giant cells” (Sullivan et al., 1979)
201 1 Applicants’ references “Neither 1080 nor fluorocitrate are likely to promote oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects by binding to a mammalian [oestrogen receptor]..therefore..are unlikely to act as [endocrine disrupting chemicals] through this specific mechanism” (Tremblay et al., 2002)
202 1 Applicants’ references “Neither 1080 or fluorocitrate are likely to promote androgenic or anti-androgenic effects by binding to a fish or the human [androgenic receptor]..therefore..are unlikely to act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals through these specific mechanisms” (Tremblay et al. 2004)
1 1 Submitter 9371 “Hutt Valley Medical Officer of Health Stephen Palmer has stopped a planned airdrop of 1080 pellets over part of Tararua Forest Park which includes the water supply for..Featherston. His move follows allegations by two Wairarapa doctors that there have been unexplained ‘peaks’ in miscarriages following previous airdrops in the late 1970s, and in 1993 and 1994”
2 1 Submitter 8952 “[quoting respected ornitholgist the late Robert Falla] ‘a number of native species have slow reproductive rates, poor recovery prospects and their numbers are precariously balanced at the best of times”