Terrestrial Plants

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
330 2 Agency App. B “1080 is a very toxic compound, because in mammalian systems (and many other animals and plants) it is readily metabolised into a toxic isomer of fluorocitrate..which interferes with a key biochemical pathway, the Kreb’s Cycle”
351 3 Agency App. C “very little 1080 is taken up by plants”
383 1 Agency App. C “the responses of plants to 1080 are highly variable. Some synthesise and hyperaccumulate the substance”
383 3 Agency App. C “systematic translocation of 1080 was demonstrated in a number of studies investigating..1080 as an..insecticide..e.g. In broad bean plants in soil..and sunflowers grown in sand”
383 4 Agency App. C “[a single bait was placed on soil in each plant container, 9 mg/1080/bait] mean maximum concentration [in broadleaf plants] 0.06 mg/kg 10 DAT, declining to LOD by 38 DAT”
383 5 Agency App. C “[plant samples] Frozen at -20°C for later analysis”
384 3 Agency App. C “1080 was measured in..one of three test [Coprosma robusta] plants [that had a single bait placed on the ground at their base, 9 mg 1080/bait]..with a maximum of 5 μg/kg at day 7..declining to <LOC at day 28”
385 1 Agency App. C “Plants: The applicants submitted a..study on effects of 1080 on seedling emergence and early growth..in oats..and..lettuce. A standard regulatory assessment would normally include a greater number of species in order to assess variability in responses”
385 2 Agency App. C “On the basis of the information available [one study on lettuce and oats] the most sensitive end point is seedling growth is lettuce, with a 14-day EC50 of 10 mg 1080/kg soil and LOEC of 7 mg/kg soil”
387 5 Agency App. C “Lettuce..time to emergence LOEC 7 mg/kg dw soil..shoot growth LOEC 7 mg/kg dw soil”
427 1 Agency App. C “100% mortality [of aphids on broad bean plants growing in 0.1 mg 1080 in 400g sand], plants remained toxic for at least 10 days..100% mortality [of aphids on broad bean plants grown in 0.00005% 1080 culture solution]”
476 2 Agency App. E “Trace levels (of 1080) were found in 11 plant samples [after 1080 cereal operations at Whitecliffs and Titirangi]..the maximum measured was 0.014 mg/kg..on day 1..it is unknown whether the residues in plants resulted from dust deposition or uptake from the soil, the authors attributed them to dust.”
483 6 Agency App. F “A standardised foliar browse index (FBI) developed by Landcare and used by DoC since the late 1990s..has proven to be inadequate for monitoring northern..and southern rata..as has an alternative method called “Rata View”
526 1 Agency App. F “Mahoe [trees] showed significant improvement within a year of possum control even when possum indices relatively high”
526 2 Agency App. F “Significant benefits [of aerial possum control on Kohekohe trees] at 3 locations but not at 2 others”
526 3 Agency App. F “Poor possum kill (RTC 10%)..but significant improvement in foliage cover [of Kohekohe trees]..in 2 years, with decline in next year”
526 4 Agency App. F “At 3..locations where 5% RTC was almost achieved, foliage cover [of kohekohe trees]..showed little or only temporary improvement”
526 5 Agency App. F “significant increase in foliage cover [of Kohekohe trees] two years’ post control, decline to pre-control levels in third year”
526 6 Agency App. F “aerial 1080 slowed but didn’t halt decline [in Kamahi trees] despite RTC<5%”
526 7 Agency App. F “improvement [in Kamahi trees] observed for first 2 years, then dropped to pre-control levels”
526 8 Agency App. F “no significant improvement [in Northern Rata after 1080 operation] but issues with adequacy of the Rata View monitoring method”
527 1 Agency App. F “Mistletoes..RTC<2% dramatic improvement, when RTC recovered to 3% decline observed”
527 2 Agency App. F “[Mahoe]..variable, significant improvement in foliage cover after 4 years at one site..may have been assisted by concurrent goat control”
527 3 Agency App. F “[Mahoe]..gain followed by decline and then improvement (environmental factors..and/or observer differences) [possible causes]”
527 4 Agency App. F “[Scarlet Mistletoe]..significant benefits when RTC<1%, with significant damage at 3%”
527 5 Agency App. F “Initial increases of foliage cover..after 1996 treatment, then declined between 1997 and 2000, mortality also increased”
527 6 Agency App. F “[Landsborough Valley..40 years of possum presence] fuchsia and wineberry in good condition”
527 7 Agency App. F “[Abbey Rock..ground control with 1080]..post-control RTC <1% all species [of trees monitored] had low possum browse scores”
527 8 Agency App. F “[a critique of the DoC monitoring reports on vegetation [2003]..recommended] investigation of the accuracy of the RTCI at low possum densities”
528 1 Agency App. F “The use of non-treatment (control) sites for comparison against treated areas was fairly sparse in the reports [on vegetation monitoring] examined, limiting conclusions..in terms of effects of possum control”
528 2 Agency App. F “Fruiting and flowering data were generally not reported in the monitoring studies reviewed by Green (2003a), despite [their] significance for..ecosystem maintenance and regeneration”
528 3 Agency App. F “Mistletoes are preferentially browsed by possums..possum densities need to be maintained below 3% RTCI to ensure [their] survival”
528 4 Agency App. F “The Agency notes that overall, the relationship between possum density and vegetation response is complex and still not fully understood”
530 1 Agency App. F “impacts of deer may not be reversible [e.g.] where palatable species remain highly browsed even at low deer densities; occupation of niches by unpalatable species; local extinction of seed sources; alteration of succession pathways; shifts in ecosystem processes” (this would also apply to possums)
536 3 Agency App. F “A high strength 1080 gel (10%) is available to target deer and goats by applying the gel to leaves of preferred plant species”
706 2 Agency App. M “Broadleaf seedling residues 0.06 mg/kg 1080 at Day 10”
707 1 Agency App. M “Karamuramu leaf residues 0.0025 mg/kg at Day 14”
707 2 Agency App. M “The highest plant tissue level [of 4 plants] reported was Day 3 in rye grass..Possibly this sampling time is a bit long after exposure, but it has been used in the absence of other data to reflect possible residues”
724 3 Agency App. N (whole groups of organisms have been omitted from the Agency’s Exposure &  Risk Assessment, including ferns, mosses, freshwater molluscs, fungi, geckos, as well as habitats, including swamps, ponds, slow-flowing streams, groundwater, pine forests)
727 3 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in broadleaf plants] 0.06 mg/kg at day 10 [1080 residues in karamuramu] 0.0025 mg/kg at Day 14”
39 1 Applicants’ references “[1080] was translocated to the shoot with little accumulation in the root [in Helianths annus plants]” (Cooke, 1976)
137 1 Applicants’ references “fluoroacetate inhibited the increase [in oxygen uptake by germinating seeds]” (Morohashi & Shimokoriyama, 1972)
149 1 Applicants’ references “The lowest-observed-effect concentration..of 1080 on lettuce seedlings was 7 mg/kg dry weight soil, at which the time to emergence significantly increased. A significant decrease in seedling emergence also occurred” (O’Halloran et al., 2003)
150 1 Applicants’ references “Cabbage..has been shown to systemically accumulate 1080 through its roots, and subsequently become toxic to aphids” (Negherborn 1959, cited in Ogilvie et al., 1998)
151 3 Applicants’ references “Karamuramu plants will take up 1080..the highest 1080 concentration measured was 5 ppb, in leaf material 7 days after bait placement” (Ogilvie et al., 2004)
154 3 Applicants’ references “both [poison] carriers caused baited leaves to abciss, and the rate of abcission increased when 1080 was included” (Parkes, 1991)
161 2 Applicants’ references “[after exposure to 1080] the oxygen consumption in segments of seedling [pea] roots is nearly completely blocked” (Polter, 1967)
162 1 Applicants’ references “[1080] decreases the speed of protoplasmic streaming [in barley root hairs] by inhibiting respiration and increasing the viscosity of protoplasm” (Popa, 1978)
218 1 Applicants’ references “Sodium fluoroacetate [applied to grape plants] decreased berry weight..it also caused stalk necrosis” (Wienhaus, 1973)
223 1 Applicants’ references “A maximum concentration of 25.2 μg 1080 mˉ² was detected in [cereal] bait dust..within the control zone..lower concentrations were found outside treatment areas..there were detectable short-term 1080 residues in water, plant, leaf litter and soil samples after 2 of the 3 baiting operations” (Wright et al., 2002)
38 2 Committee Decision “few submitters disputed the benefits to vulnerable plants and New Zealand’s overall biodiversity from the use of 1080 to control possums”
38 3 Committee Decision “The Committee heard from..submitters..regarding increased flowering and vegetative growth of plants such as mistletoe following aerial applications..they reported a lack of seedling regeneration on plots accessible to deer compared to plots which excluded them” (listed under ERMA’s Biodiversity benefits of 1080)
39 1 Committee Decision “vegetation monitoring data obtained in association with aerial 1080 operations does, however, support the applicants’ assertions that native ecosystems benefit significantly”
60 4 Committee Decision “Some submitters were concerned that plants might be adversely affected by the aerial application of 1080 baits. The Committee did not, however receive any specific evidence to substantiate this concern”
61 1 Committee Decision “No adverse effects on plants have been reported from the use of 1080 baits in the field” (never measured)
61 2 Committee Decision “1080 can be toxic to plants only at concentrations which are much higher than could occur in the field”
72 4 Committee Decision “investigations..indicate..the uptake of 1080 by plants..is very low”
195 1 Decision App. B “low sowing rates result in exposure levels too low to cause effects [to terrestrial plants]”