Fish and their Habitat

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
349 7 Agency App. C “Data gaps..Toxicity to..aquatic invertebrate species given the high toxicity to mosquito larvae”
360 1 Agency App. C “The available set of high quality acute data [on aquatic toxicity] is small. No chronic studies have been undertaken”
360 2 Agency App. C “the Agency was not able to locate, any data on the aquatic toxicity of the metabolite fluorocitrate”
360 4 Agency App. C “there is significant uncertainty regarding the aquatic classification of 1080 due to the quality of the data available. None of the aquatic plant studies has been conducted to current international standards””
360 5 Agency App. C “96-hour [exposure of Rainbow trout, half of individuals dead at] 54 mg/l, sub-lethal effects on survivors – not specified”
360 6 Agency App. C “the applicants cited..a conference the reference..without access to the full text of the original study, the Agency is not able to fully verify the summary information available [LD 50 for trout 54 mg/l]” (test over 96 hours, no temperature given)
360 7 Agency App. C “[24 hour study] no ‘ill-effects’ [on rainbow trout] at 580 mg/ further information available”
361 1 Agency App. C “Fingerling bream and signs of toxicity at 370 mg/ further information available”
361 2 Agency App. C “Fingerling trout (species not identified) ‘ill effects’ at 500 and further information..NZ Wildlife Service report”
361 3 Agency App. C “Adult trout..force-feeding of 1 or 2 bait effects further information available (unpublished NZ Wildlife Service report)”
361 4 Agency App. C “Daphnia magna, 48 hour..EC50 350 mg/L..comments as for Collins [no access to the original study so the Agency is not able to fully verify the summary information]”
361 4 Agency App. C “Mosquito larva..48 hours [test]..15% mortality at 0.025 mg/L..40% mortality at 0.05 mg/L..65% mortality at 0.1 mg/L”
361 6 Agency App. C “Blue-green algae..toxicity threshold 0.4 μg/l”
362 1 Agency App. C “73% reduction in frond growth rate [in duckweed] at 0.5 mg/L”.
362 2 Agency App. C “complete growth inhibition at 50 mg/L [duckweed, Spirodella oligorrhiza]..complete growth inhibition at 100g/L [duckweed, Spirodella polyrrhiza]”
363 1 Agency App. C “1080..measured in 5 of 8 eels which consumed muscle tissue..[was] 0.003-0.32mg/kg ..9 days after the last feed..low residues were measured in 1 of the 3 eels which had consumed contaminated gut”
363 2 Agency App. C “Crayfish were observed..consuming the baits..there were no mortalities [in 8 days..highest residues were] 3.3 mg/kg in viscera and 5mg/kg in tail muscle..7.1 mg/kg total concentration [viscera & muscle]was measured in a larger bodied crayfish 4 days after exposure”
363 3 Agency App. C “Concentrations in [freshwater crayfish] muscle decreased significantly  between days 4 and 8 (from mean ~1.2 mg/kg to ~0.2 mg/kg, data presented graphically only)”
364 1 Agency App. C “8 individuals of 3 species (long-finned eels)..koaro..upland bullies [held in cages in streams with 1080 baits in mesh bags 10 or 100m upstream or downstream]..3 cages..were stolen..mortalities [occurred] as a result of high mortalities could be attributed to [tissue] sampling was undertaken..the fish did not have access [to baits]..bullies and koaro it is unlikely they would consume baits..[eels were not observed to consume baits when given access]”
472 4 Agency App. E “the expected number of baits deposited in a stream cannot be assessed from stream size or bait application rate”
530 2 Agency App. F “A small short-term reduction in..stoneflies, mayflies, caddis flies was noted 5 days after the [cereal 1080] drop. A short-term drop in the total number of species was also observed in some [of 4] streams. Such reductions were not observed in the control stream..14 days [later] species and abundance were generally higher than before the operation..the authors concluded the changes were related to a flood event prior to the operation”
705 1 Agency App. M “[In freshwater crayfish] tail muscle analysis gave ~ 1.5 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.25 mg/kg at Day 8, while for viscera analysis gave ~1.2 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.2 mg/kg at Day 8”
724 2 Agency App. N “No effects [on aquatic biota] are likely based on the number of baits that have been recorded falling into streams”
67 1 Applicants’ references “Acute toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates appears to be relatively low” (Fisher & Eason, 2003)
68 1 Applicants’ references “Data from aerial 1080 operations for the control of..possums in NZ show that estimates of the bait size and toxic concentration..derived from the mean parameters..will not be accurate” (Frampton et al., 1999)
99 1 Applicants’ references “We were certainly surprised to find that fingerling bream and bass would survive in 370 ppm for an indefinite period” (King & Penfound, 1946)
111 1 Applicants’ references “Wild-sourced eels were acclimatised for 21 days in a wet-laboratory before being exposed to 1080 [32 eels used in Trial 1 and 48 used in Trial 2]” (Lyver et al., 2004)
112 1 Applicants’ references “The detection of 1080 in the muscle of an eel 9 days after it last consumed possum gut tissue..suggests that the..excretion of sublethal doses..may be slower than in mammals and in-depth study should be undertaken..other scavenging aquatic fauna..also..should be considered” (Lyver et al., 2004)
192 2 Applicants’ references “The fact that detritus was also present in the cages suggested that pollard baits may [be a] more favourable food item to crayfish than detritus” (Suren & Bonnet, 2004)
193 1 Applicants’ references “The highest total concentration of 1080 found within a particular crayfish (7.7 mg kg -1) suggested that c. 80% of a pollard bait had been consumed by this is, however..possible that crayfish in natural streams would encounter more than one..bait..and consume them” (Suren & Bonnet, 2004)
59 2 Committee Decision “Results…have produced no evidence of adverse effects from exposure to toxic baits on aquatic species”
59 6 Committee Decision “The Committee notes that in general terms, 1080 is not toxic to fish”