Animal Welfare

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
317 2 Agency App. B “Almost half (21) of the sheep died [after a single dose of 0.25-0.3 mg/kg bw 1080]..the surviving animals formed the study population”
317 4 Agency App. B “The original intention had been to repeat dose animals [groups of 20 ewes] to receive 0.05mg/kg bw (daily) for 5 days, but due to significant deaths on the 3rd further doses were administered”
321 1 Agency App. B “the Agency considered that acute exposures to 1080 in humans and animals may give rise to..irreversible adverse, target organ [heart and brain] effects. These effects are severe”
326 2 Agency App. B “Eason 1994 studied the toxicokinetics of 1080 in 9 sheep and 2 goats after treatment..with 0.1mg/kg bw of 1080”
327 1 Agency App. B “The half-lives [of 1080] in a small range of other species were reported by Eason et al (1994)”
361 2 Agency App. C “Fingerling trout (species not identified) ‘ill effects’ at 500 and further information..NZ Wildlife Service report”
361 3 Agency App. C “Adult trout..force-feeding of 1 or 2 bait effects further information available (unpublished NZ Wildlife Service report)”
386 3 Agency App. C “97.5 mortality [of a British earthworm species]at 250 mg/kg dw soil”
393 2 Agency App. C “[time to death for possums after a single oral dose of 1080] 5.0-97.0 hours”
394 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for wallaby pouched young]  11.5-80.5 hours”
395 1 Agency App. C [21 [sheep] died within 4 days of dosing”
396 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for rabbits after single oral dose of 1080] 3.0-44.3 hours”
396 2 Agency App. C “[in  rabbits dosed with 1080] Increased sensitivity to noise or disturbance, followed by recovery or onset of further symptoms: convulsions with coughing or squeaking and death”
397 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for cats after single oral dose of 1080] varied but all died < 24 hours at the three highest [doses]”
400 2 Agency App. C “Assessment..indicates that skeletal muscle damage may occur in birds exposed to 1080”
406 1 Agency App. C “[time to death of 15 weka dosed with 1080] 4-18 hours..four survivors..dosed daily..for 14 days..the bird receiving the highest daily dose died after 5 doses”
406 2 Agency App. C “Survivors [of weka given 1080, showed a range of symptoms including] loss of balance, threat..defence..increased respiration; circling..coma”
411 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for blackbirds dosed with 1080] 10.8-30.5 hours”
414 2 Agency App. C “the time to onset and time to death are long [in frogs and reptiles]”
415 3 Agency App. C “The trials [on toxicity of 1080 in bait, prey and water to NZ native frogs] were preliminary, rather than providing standard end point data”
415 4 Agency App. C “12 adult frogs of each species  [NZ native frogs]..were dehydrated..prior to placement in [1080] treated water, presumably to attain a ‘worst case’ state prior to exposure”
416 1 Agency App. C “A number of frogs died during the study, including one of two control Archey’s frogs which contained 1.4 mg 1080/kg”
417 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for grass frog 36.8 – 98.3 hours]
417 2 Agency App. C “[time to death for bluetongued lizard 14.4-522.5 hours]”
422 2 Agency App. C “A delayed action was observed (2 hours after feeding) with vigorous shaking, inability to hold onto comb, and death [in bees accessing 1080 jam baits]”
424 1 Agency App. C “[Tree] weta dosed [with 1080] by micro-syringe and then killed at various times after dosing”
481 1 Agency App. F “The applicant did not specifically discuss effects on non-native species (other than target species) in the environmental effects register. Only a small number of reports note effects on introduced birds”
484 1 Agency App. F “Deaths of..birds have been reported frequently after pest control operations, but generally do not give any indication of potential effects at a population level”
484 5 Agency App. F “in a series of 3 trials to evaluate the utility of screening the bait, all at a sowing rate of 40 kg/ha..177 dead birds were found (143 native)”
489 3 Agency App. F “Dead birds [after 1080 drop in Pureroa forest in 1994]..included 4 kereru, 2 blackbirds, 4 riflemen, 1 grey warbler and 7 tomtits..snow fell soon after the poison drop and may have contributed to the deaths”
504 5 Agency App. F “One radiotagged [weka] found dead and 1080 poisoning non-radio-tagged bird found sick, droppings contained 1080 but bird recovered [after aerial cereal operation]”
521 1 Agency App. F “Groups of bats were captured when returning to their roost and held in captivity for 48 hours (to assess mortality after a 1080 cereal operation]. No [deaths] or signs of poisoning occurred..further fully assess the potential impact of 1080”
521 5 Agency App. F “cases included..150 sheep dying 10 weeks after toxic carrot had been laid in paddocks..78 sheep dying after grazing an airstrip used to load toxic carrot bait..20 weeks after the operation”
522 1 Agency App. F “Feral deer and other ungulates have been direct targets of 1080 operations..they may also be killed as accidental “by-kill”
525 4 Agency App. F “some hundreds of deer..were killed across the total treatment area”
533 3 Agency App. F “Mammalian predators are frequently killed during 1080 operations”
534 2 Agency App. F “There was very little information in the application regarding rabbit control..this species is not a key pest for either the AHB or DoC..2 bait strengths are currently approved..with sowing rates >40 kg/ha”
535 3 Agency App. F “Cereal pellets at 0.2% 1080, treated carrot at 0.15%, and high strength gels (5 and 10% 1080) are approved for wallaby control”
565 1 Agency App. H “[possums for human consumption] must be supplied live to premises for processing, while other feral caught animals such as deer, chamois etc, can be shot and the carcasses brought in [NZFSA regulations]”
574 1 Agency App. I: Fisher “1080 presents a significant welfare risk- poisoned animals experience several hours of compromised welfare and death, and possible pathological effects in surviving animals. This risk, not just to possums but many other species, should be acknowledged and considered..Given that 1080 is a broad-spectrum toxin, it is essential that the broad spectrum of costs and benefits is considered and not just limited to possums” (Mark Fisher, expert on ethics report)
722 3 Agency App. N “Deaths of tomtits and robins have frequently been reported after aerial 1080 operations..but..are capable of wide dispersal and have a high reproductive capacity”
729 1 Agency App. N “in a..trial with toxic baits..5 kiwi with radiotransmitters were monitored after baits were hand-sown into their home ranges”
747 7 Agency App. N “Australasian harrier..Low priority [for research] – few reports of dead birds; widespread species not in decline [situation in 1997]”
886 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “The SPCA maintains its strenuous opposition to the use of 1080 in situations where non-target species, such as dogs, cats, deer and bird life, may be either directly or indirectly affected; also to use of 1080 for species..where..there has been insufficient [independent] research into the effects, in terms of humaneness, on these animals”
887 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “To our knowledge there has been work on the animal welfare impacts on stoats..and possums, but there have been no specific studies of other animals in New Zealand that would allow an accurate assessment of risks to other target or non-target animals”
45 3 Applicants’ references “To quantitate the risk [of livestock eating a sublethal dose]..rabbits, sheep and goats have been orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg 1080” (Eason & Gooneratne, 1993)
47 3 Applicants’ references “With the highest dose all [cats] died within 24 h [cats given 0.1-1.3 mg/kg bw 1080]” (Eason & Frampton, 1991)
74 1 Applicants’ references “[rabbits were administered doses of 1080 to study] the persistence of 1080 in plasma, liver, kidney and muscle” (results only given for plasma) (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
85 1 Applicants’ references “Possums that ate..small doses of 1080..either endured a protracted time to death or survived” (Henderson et al., 1999)
109 3 Applicants’ references “Monitoring involved catching a sample of 269 bats as they arrived at a roost after foraging, then holding them in captivity for 48 hours..although..several replicate trials are required before a generalised conclusion can be drawn about the fate of short-tailed bats following aerial 1080 operations” (Lloyd & McQueen, 2002)
111 1 Applicants’ references “Wild-sourced eels were acclimatised for 21 days in a wet-laboratory before being exposed to 1080 [32 eels used in Trial 1 and 48 used in Trial 2]” (Lyver et al., 2004)
118 1 Applicants’ references “Signs of poisoning [in pigs] appeared [up to] 47.3 h after dosing, and deaths [up to] 80 h..after dosing” (McIlroy, 1983)
135 1 Applicants’ references “Possums..[n=131] were offered sublethal baits followed by lethal baits 2 days later..most possums became bait shy..most retested after 3 months..were still shy” (Morgan et al., 1996)
137 2 Applicants’ references “Trapping and poisoning only provide short-term solutions to the possum problem and often involve methods that involve suffering. [Many of the] Intrusive experiments connected with these not attain the welfare standards required by members of the public” (Morris & Weaver, 2003)
145 1 Applicants’ references “Most pigs vomited repeatedly after 1080 intoxication” (O’Brien et al., 1986)
166 1 Applicants’ references “Forty sheep were dosed orally with compound or near the lethal dose rate” (Rammell, 1993)
173 1 Applicants’ references “Caged wild rabbits..were [repeatedly] fed sublethal doses of..1080” (Rowley, 1963)
106 1 Submitter 9074 “the spasm period of [1080] victims, particularly the canines, seems unduly violent..The severe spasms associated with 1080..[is an] outstanding objection” (Biologist for the US Fish & Wildlife Service, 1948)
14 6 Committee Decision “possums that eat a lethal dose of 1080 usually die in 6 to 18 hours”
35 2 Committee Decision “Both DoC and Regional Councils use 1080 to control possums but the control of rats and stoats is also very important”
35 3 Committee Decision “1080 is also used to control other pests such as rabbits, wallabies and feral cats”
83 2 Committee Decision “possums..should be treated as humanely as possible”
83 3 Committee Decision “neither [trapping or shooting] are wholly reliable in terms of reducing suffering”
83 4 Committee Decision “work is being done on the improvement of bait to ensure that a lethal dose is delivered to the target animal. This is consistent with the Authority’s ethical framework which requires that account be taken of concern for animal welfare”
84 1 Committee Decision “The Committee notes that [on-going suffering from a sub-lethal dose] applies to all vertebrate pest control methods”
84 2 Committee Decision “deerstalkers…expressed particular concern about…slow and painful deaths [of deer]”
86 1 Committee Decision “livestock deaths from 1080 poison do occur”
200 2 Decision App.B “Target animals deserve to be treated humanely”