In 1979 scientist Eric Spurr warned that wide scale poisoning of New Zealand with compound 1080, intended to kill introduced mammals, was actually killing kea and many other animals. It took decades before NZ’s Department of Conservation (DoC) finally began to monitor kea deaths from 1080 poisoning.
TbFree, formerly the Animal Health Board (AHB), explains:
“Despite having a very low human health risk now, bovine TB is still regarded as an unwanted disease in New Zealand because of the negative consumer perceptions and adverse market reactions it could generate. High levels of TB would also cause significant production losses for New Zealand farmers….
“Controlling possums helps to minimise the risk of the disease spreading within the possum population and to livestock. We know if we can keep the numbers low enough for long enough over large areas, we can eventually eradicate TB…
“Currently biodegradeable 1080 is the only control method that can be applied aerially. This means it can be used for quick and effective control in hard to access areas, or large tracts of land, where ground control is impractical” – Tb free website 2014
What do science and history say?
The Animal Health Board, now called TBFree, has no rational basis for using aerial 1080 poison to kill possums.
This was highlighted when the AHB applied in 2007 to continue aerial 1080 poisoning operations, to the Environmental Risk Management Authority:
“No research is cited in the Application that studies the dollar losses occurring from the loss of one or more export markets..Clough & Nixon (2000) conclude…a trade ban would be difficult to sustain under current international trade rules, the risk is very small and the expected value of an avoided trade ban is modest…
“The Application…fails to demonstrate evidence or understanding of economic research on use of 1080, pest control or Tb…this section of the application is unsophisticated, uses crude approaches to estimate even the largest benefits and costs associated with the use of 1080, lacks awareness of many pertinent economic research techniques, seems unaware of almost all relevant economic research.” – Professor Ross Cullen, Economic Expert advising the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA), 2007
“around 3% of all human Tb cases are M. bovis…The Ministry of Health attributes these low rates to herd testing and the widespread pasteurisation of milk…
“even if bovine Tb were prevalent in cattle it would not present a real risk to human health…
”We recommend that in making its decisions, ERMA de-emphasise the importance of bovine Tb”. – NZ Health experts advising ERMA, 2007
“the applicants have provided little factual support to demonstrate efficacy of aerial compared with ground application of 1080 as it relates to possums and Tb control…
“the relative contributions of possums and other wildlife (particularly ferrets) to Tb infection of cattle and deer herds are not clearly defined at this time.” – ERMA Agency, 2007
“there is no evidence to support the suggestion that trade is significantly reduced by not having bovine Tb-free status.” – ERMA Committee, 2007
Localised, farm margin harvesting of all Tb-carrying species would be far more rational than broadscale 1080 poisoning, because
- Tuberculous possums are clustered in relatively small, stationary “hotspots”
- possums (both diseased and healthy) living in forests were found to only travel occasionally onto farm pastures, and none were found to move more than 1300m
“Tuberculosis possums were clustered in “hotspots” and identification and targeting of these high prevalence areas would make control of tuberculosis in wildlife more effective” – S. Norton et al., NZ Veterinary Journal, 2005
“The disease shows remarkable spatial clustering…that can persist over extended periods of time…despite intensive possum control efforts…methods for the future may include…identification of spatial determinants of “hotspots” to allow more targeted population control” – R. Jackson, NZ Veterinary Journal, 2002
“operations to reduce possum numbers in Tb-problem areas would need to encompass at least 1 km of forest adjacent to pasture….
“Where the problem is long-standing and the incidence of Tb in possums is high at the forest/pasture margin (>10%), infection may already be present in the deep forest (Cook & Coleman, 1975), and control may be required further (1-2km) into forest.” – W. Green & J. Coleman, NZ J. Ecology, 1986
- Tb is found in a wide range of wildlife, not just possums. The role of other wildlife in spreading and maintaining Tb infection is not very well known.
“…some deer species and ferrets may act as vectors of the disease, but their role in transmitting TB to livestock is unclear…
“Hedgehogs, pigs, cats, sheep and goats are now considered to be amplifier hosts, and spread the disease to other species only when inspected or their carcass scavenged.
“Tuberculosis has been recorded in a small number of stoats …Disease prevalences are unknown, and estimates of them are difficult, due to the rapid turnover of stoat populations and difficulty in trapping them…
“Tuberculosis has been identified in a limited number of feral goat populations, but none of them have been studied in detail.” – J. Coleman & M. Cooke, Tuberculosis, 2001
After a TbFree aerial poisoning operation, the carcasses of all animals are left for scavengers. This includes rats, stoats, ferrets and pigs, which can all catch and spread Tb:
“In endemic areas, rats have ample opportunity to inhale or ingest M. Bovis bacilli during their scavenging of infected carrion, and of transmitting Tb to other species when scavenged themselves.” – J. Coleman & M. Cooke, Tuberculosis, 2001
Feral ferrets (Mustela furo) and stoats (M. Erminea) are abundant in many regions of the country and are highly susceptible to infection with M. Bovis…the disease appears to be maintained by consumption of tuberculous carrion” – R. Jackson, NZ Veterinary Journal, 2002
“The interaction between pest species is poorly understood. For example, rodent numbers sometimes increase following possum control operations, which may lead to an increase in stoat populations” – G. Nugent et al., Kararehe Kino Vertebrate Pest Research, 2008
“our analysis which showed no decrease in ferret abundance at sites that have been subject to possum control” – S. Norton et al., NZ Veterinary Journal, 2005
“pathology indicates most pigs are infected by feeding on tuberculosis carrion…
“Pigs are wide ranging and often forage in large family groups so whole-group feeding on a single carcass may often amplify the number of infected animals.” – T. Ryan et al., Veterinary Microbiology, 2006
Recent documented evidence points to human error in spreading and monitoring Tb:
“Twelve percent of dairy herds have 500 or more animals…High prevalence breakdowns in such herds have occurred…Movements of animals in-and-out of such herds is a plausible cause, but “stress” leading to immune dysfunction probably also contributes.”
“In terms of TB in Northland, there are currently seven herds…which have tested positive. A high level of TB infection has been found in young stock and there has been movement of infected calves traced to a farm south of Kaitaia…response by TBfree NZ has included…wildlife surveys to assess infection in wild animals such as possums and wild pigs. To date, 47 pigs and 340 possums have been sampled from the Awanui area and no TB infection has been found in wild animals…TBfree NZ are still investigating…findings so far show that dairy cattle sales and stock movements are very complex”
“Dispose of dead stock properly…don’t allow wild animals such as pigs to access open offal pits – this could result in TB transfer to wildlife”
“Infected herds by type at July 2013:..These figures represent a significant increase in infected herds in the North Island but also a small increase in the South Island.”
“Compliance: at the time of this report there are 16 cattle herds 180+ days overdue for testing. This equates to 15 per cent of the national total for overdue tests. A number of these herd owners have been in discussions with the North Island Compliance Manager as they are unable to muster their stock or they have become feral…Unregistered herds are also of concern in the Northland Region.” – N. MacMillian, Northland Regional Council Environmental Management Committee Meeting Tabled Item 30/07/2014
“Tb Free New Zealand says recent cases of the disease in two herds in the Rangitata/Orari area of South Canterbury were a West Coast strain…
This confirms that the herds have become infected from bought-in TB infected cattle…
A wildlife “survey” in the area caught 996 possums, all of which tested free of the disease.” – A. Swallow, Rural News 2013
“With animal movement, in a study of cattle and deer in the Waikato district, it was found that only 10% of cattle herds were “closed”…
“Models of this “population” suggested that the “intensity of disease surveillance” has profound effects on the ability to reduce the number of infected herds (Barlow et al., 1998). As a result, surveillance intensity was increased, and there was a rapid reduction in herd prevalence…
“Accurately identifying all infected and non-infected animals is challenging…
“With M. Bovis infection, particular problems are an extended pre-clinical period, some animals being unable to mount a normal immune response, and waning of cellular immunity after prolonged infection” – T. Ryan et al., Veterinary Microbiology, 2006
Whereas it is not even known how a possum would give Tb to a cow!
“The mode of transmission between possums and livestock is poorly understood and difficult to study. However, dominant cattle and deer have been observed to approach semi-sedated (“sick”) possums, and sniff and mouth them. – J. Coleman & M. Cooke, Tuberculosis, 2001
“Possum-to-cattle transmission is thought to occur when cattle investigate disorientated, diseased possums wandering in pastures close to their bush habitats (R.S. Morris, pers. Commun.) – N. Barlow, Trends in Microbiology, 1985
Final word from science and history- advice unheeded
“This Council recognises the seriousness of outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle, but urges that the enormous injection of funds into eradication programmes and the large expenditure on control programmes be matched by the provision of adequate resources for further research…
“the cumulative evidence of bird deaths is sufficiently reliable to indicate that there are significant effects on non-target organisms…
“the Council recommends that methods be developed for the disposal of unused baits and poisoned carcasses and that the Crown be bound…
“The Council recommends that the use of 1080 should not be permitted in any significant wildlife area or reserve and especially in takahe/kakapo areas, forest sanctuaries, biological reserves and national parks…
“this Council recommends that appropriate preliminary justification and thorough monitoring processes be a pre-requisite for further 1080 operations…
“control operations utilising 1080 may induce bait shyness, are only temporarily effective, and often create favourable conditions for noxious animals by reducing competition, and releasing nesting sites and feeding areas” – NZ Nature Conservation Council, 1977
To monitor effects of 1080 poisoning, Kea are harrassed during nesting and year round. Many wear backpacks with transmitters.
Quotes on Harrassment:
“The interests of the bird come first. Birds respond to people in many ways, depending on the species, location and time of year. Disturbance can keep birds from their nests, leaving chicks hungry or enabling predators to take eggs or young…
“Intentional or reckless disturbance of some species at or near the nest is illegal in Britain…
“Disturbance is not just about going too close – a flock of wading birds on the foreshore can be disturbed from a mile away if you stand on the sea wall…
“Repeatedly playing a recording of birdsong or calls to encourage a bird to respond can divert a territorial bird from other important duties, such as feeding its young. Never use playback to attract a species during its breeding season.” – Association of County Recorders and Editors, 2014
“Do not approach nests when young are close to fledging: When the young are disturbed during this stage, they may leave the nest prematurely. Young that fledge prematurely usually do not stay in the nest prematurely despite attempts to put them back, and their survival rates away from or outside the nest are low. So when young birds are fully feathered and very alert, only observe the nest from a distance…
Be wary of nest predators. Avoid leaving tracks that can direct predators to nests. Nest predators are everywhere- on the ground, in vegetation, and in the air- and many are smart enough to watch you…
Also try not to damage or trample vegetation that could expose nests”- Cornell University Lab of Ornithology 2011
“visiting nests to check the contents necessarily results in disturbance of the individuals being studied. Moreover, investigator disturbance may increase the probability of nest predation (Elser and Grand 1993), human scent (Whelan et al. 1994), or nest markers (Picozzi 1995, Yahner and Wright 1985). Human disturbance may also reduce nest attendance or enhance conspicuous behaviour of the parents.” – N. Verboven et al., The Auk, 2001
“One potential nest cavity was visited and there was an attempt to catch the female who was perched close to the site….Four fledglings were caught and transmitters attached…There was quite significant kea activity at the top of the Gibbs track with at least six unbanded birds…Attempts were made to catch as many of these as possible with one team devoting two nights to this task. – C. Mosen, Nestor Notabilis 6, 2014
“When we were checking the nest, I got to crawl inside. It was really interesting, as the cavity was a lot different to what I expected! It was long- I crawled more than my whole body length in – and it was narrow! I had to go in a bit like superman with my arms out in front of me…
“Tomorrow, we were heading to the Hawdon Valley to check on a couple of nests and put bands and transmitters on some chicks- can’t wait!…
“to our surprise, there was a wee chick there! I say wee but he weighed over 1000g. Cory got him out and we weighed, banded, took bloods and feathers and measured him. We attached a satellite transmitter as part of Erin’s work….
“We had heard from someone that they had been near the hut and heard a Kea vocalising a lot, in a way which made Cory think maybe there is a nest up there. So out we went with some kea calls and a telemetry aerial to see if we could find any kea out there. While we were there, we also checked another old nest. Unfortunately we didn’t find anything”. – Sarah, Wellington Zoo website 2012
“Kea monitoring requires specialist skills, involving capture of kea and tagging them with VHF radio transmitters weeks or months before poison baiting. Telemetry surveys are
carried out during the risk period following the operation, on foot and from aircraft.”
– DOC Code of Practice for Aerial 1080 in Kea Habitat, 2014
“7 paired field researchers/observers per site will survey a minimum of 4 ridges each…
“over an 8 day period in mid-January. This will be timed to co-incide with fledglings leaving the nest…
“capture and band all kea where possible. Associated with satellite and radio tracking of individual birds, banding will be used…
“collection and storage of blood samples at the time of capture will provide samples for other organisations…
Each paired group of researchers must therefore have combined experience in trapping, banding, blood collection and storage, and attachment of tracking equipment.”- L. Roberts, Academia 2014
“The number of experienced kea handlers has increased in recent years due to the corresponding increase in kea conservation work. The number of personnel with competent bird handling skills has made it easier to recruit EBHs each year” – P. Van Klink, Nestor Notabilis 6, 2014
“Corey Mosen revisited our survey nest sites during October and November. Here’s a quick comparison of each of the nests sites from his first visits in August/Sept…Nelson Lakes…2 nests now have 3 chicks total. Beryls nest has failed (with the loss of 2 chicks and one egg), Queen Pow Pow’s nest has been reduced from 3 chicks to two chicks and How’s nest has reduced from 1 chick and 1 egg to 1 egg and 1 chick. Pest visitation seems to be the main factor for nest failure.” – T. Orr-Walker, Kea Conservation Trust Newsletter, 2014
[Ruru] “Although radio-tagged birds are able to provide extremely robust information on the direct impact of toxins such as 1080…this technique is limited to those species that are able to carry a transmitter…
“34 ruru were captured and radio-tagged…only 11 were known to be alive at the time of the poison operation, due to transmitter failure, predation, and 18 birds dying during a prolonged period of extremely cold weather 2 weeks prior to the operation…
Use of ‘backpack’-type harnesses…for…kereru has been restricted by the Department of Conservation following concerns over instances of harness entanglement and resultant deaths” – T.C. Green et al., NZ J. Ecology 2013
[Saddleback] “Ten birds had tail-mounted transmitters attached and were monitored weekly. Two weeks after release, four transmittered saddleback were found dead following a week of extremely cold southerlies which brought snow to the higher parts of Boundary Stream.
Necropsies of two birds found they died of aspergillosis, a common fungal disease that can become fatal when the bird is under stress. One bird had a broken neck, but mammalian predation was ruled out. The fourth bird was too decomposed to necropsy, but no obvious signs of predation were found.
A survey six weeks after release estimated 21 birds present, giving a 57% minimum survival rate. There are five known pairs that are courtship feeding, but none are known to have attempted to nest.” – DoC Rare Bits Newsletter, 2004
[Whio] “Survivors from last year’s release are still encountered, but the birds had transmitters removed because of weight loss problems” – DoC Rare Bits Newsletter, 2000
“The 2011 Kea Summer Survey field work was completed by an enthusiastic team of 40 experienced kea handlers…
“Both areas are integral to a larger population research project which has been run annually for three years in Nelson-Lakes (2009-2011) and four years in Arthurs Pass (2009-2012). This census work aims to establish the density and stability of kea populations in a number of key areas which are subject to different pest management regimes. The nest monitoring and tracking project will provide crucial supporting information.” – T. Orr-Walker, Nestor Notabilis, 2012
“At the start of the 2011 season there were twenty-one kea radio tagged in the Hawdon valley, Arthurs Pass, to be monitored.
Six transmitters were found to be in mortality mode (4 of which were adult breeding females). The loss of these birds significantly reduces the possible sample size of nests to monitor. Additionally, nine transmittered birds remained unaccounted for resulting in only six kea able to be followed.
“Three of these kea are adult females of which only one has been identified as attempting to breed (Queen Pow Pow). The other two females showed no indication of having active cavities or notable courtship or nesting behaviour. Nest cameras set up at the Queen Pow Pow’s nest showed that this nest was abandoned with an egg intact and this pair moved to another nest site which also did not produce chicks.
“Information gleaned from this nesting season appears to indicate that the high number of deaths of both adult and sub-adult birds may now be affecting productivity.
“A case in point is the late 2010 nesting by Mrs Moon (one chick fledged at the end of April 2011). Mrs Moon died one month later on 8 June 2011.” – T. Orr-Walker, Nestor Notabilis, 2012
“a light aircraft was used to radio track birds…Seven kea are present radio tagged in Nelson lakes- ….The three identified breeding pairs…were followed and their nest cavities identified. Out of a seven possible nest sites, three cavities were confirmed by September 2011. Cameras were set up inside and outside each nest area and images taken throughout the breeding season. Only one of the breeding pairs, Ceejay and Kelly, successfully fledged chicks as follows: Nest site 3 successfully fledged three chicks early in December 2011; Nest site 26 most likely failed due to possum predation; Nest Site 8 was found to be infertile. Unfortunately, Kelly, Ceejay’s mate, was recovered dead during the nesting period (necropsy report cause of “sudden death” -unknown)” – T. Orr-Walker, Nestor Notabilis 2012
“This research at two of the three kea summer survey sites aims to support the summer population research by following up on tracking of radio tagged kea at each of the sites and check the status of known nests throughout the breeding season.” – Kea Conservation Trust, 2011
“We stopped regularly while Franny and Brent released their pre-recorded birdsong on the jungle…
The kea was then “processed”, you know, like processed food. Out of Franny’s bag of tricks came a radiotransmitter, with nylon string to attach it, a beak-measuring device, scales and other fandangos…
Oh yeah, I was going to talk about 1080 and keas. Well the story as far as I can make out is that despite years of scepticism from DOC scientists, recent studies of mortality following an aerial 1080 drop have shown keas dying from 1080 poisoning…
One point it is always worth making is that much of the 1080 poisoning in NZ is undertaken by the Animal Health Board in its ongoing battle with TB…But whatever way this does seem to be a big problem…
Alarm bells seem to be ringing and DOC has teamed up with Landcare Research to investigate an effective bird repellent. It will be interesting to see what happens and if the planned drop in Okarito forest goes ahead” – J. Stewart, Blog, 2009
“During the breeding season (July-January) we repeatedly searched for every radio-tagged adult in our study until we found its nest, were confident it was not nesting, found its body, or concluded it had migrated out of our study area…Once it was found, we checked each nest every 2-3 weeks until it either failed or the chicks had fledged…
“We radio-tagged eleven near-fledgling chicks during three summers of our study and in three subsequent summers we flew at 2500-3500 m, in a radio-telemetry equipped fixed wing aircraft over all forested mountains within a 50-km radius of the nests.
Following the flight, we visited all of the birds on foot to see if they were alive. We assumed the birds we could not find from the air had migrated out of our search area…
“We captured and radio-tagged 39 kea which we monitored for an average of 2.5 years each. We found 44 nests in 25 sites and were able to assess the nesting success of 40 of them.”
“Eggs and chicks disappeared from 35% of the nests we monitored and at two of these nests definite sign of stoat predation was found” – G. Elliot & J. Kemp, NZ Dept of Conservation Internal Science Series, 2004
“when in the open on a river flat or above the bush line they carefully watch any large bird flying high above. To do this it is necessary for them to twist the head sideways and while in this stance all the Kea’s attention is occupied…
“The large number of band injuries were caused not by the band being put on improperly but because a band prevents normal swelling of the leg, following a foot injury.” – J. Jackson, Notornis, 1969
“At least three of my seventeen nests with chicks have been discovered by falcons…The parents chase the falcons away. Also visiting Kea are very interested in the nestlings and the parents drive them away from the last five yards of the nest with much noise. I suspect that visiting Keas destroyed the young chicks two or three weeks old in one nest…
“Some hens, if the observer sits on their promontory while they are nesting, get very excited. They fly in a zig-zag flight close over or around under the promontory, swing out 100 yards on either side and call loudly all the time, perhaps a quarter of an hour. The cock during this display remains further back…
“Many of the young cocks do not remain mated to their wives. He moves on but the hen remains, using the nest for her life…
“Other less successful hens fail to mate in their second year. Such a hen often sends much time with a hen busy building. It is possible that the young hen learns much from watching the old hen closely.” – J. Jackson, Notornis, 1963
“July: Heavy falls of snow cover much ground and Keas feed in the forest and on the forest floor. First eggs laid…
October: Peak of laying. Adults very shy and quiet” – J. Jackson, Notornis, 1960
Please help save the kea from poisoning, harassment and harnesses
“…once in the air they play. The chick dives at her like a falcon. She rolls over and parries the blow. Then the tables are turned. They play in the gusts of a storm, swing around a spur, plunge down into the shelter of a gully and back into the wind on the turbulent air.” – J. Jackson, Notornis 1963
The Department of Conservation (DoC) explains:
“High levels of seed production (‘mast’) in our beech forests is expected to trigger a rodent and stoat explosion later this year. When seed supplies run out these predators will turn on endangered birds…
“A widespread rodent and stoat plague in South Island beech forests would put some of our most threatened bird species such as yellowhead/mōhua and orange-fronted parakeet/kākāriki karanga at serious risk of extinction.” – DoC website, 2014
What do Science and History say?
Beech masting is natural, temporary, and its effects are not well understood or predictable.
“The density index for R. rattus increased…after the 1976 seedfall, but not after that of 1979.” – C. King, J. Anim. Ecology, 1983
“A prey switch to ground weta occurred as mice numbers declined, and not to birds, as is often expected or feared by conservation managers.” – D. Smith & I. Jamieson, DoC Science Internal Series, 2003
“Fluctuations in trap success suggest that stoats become very numerous in the summer and autumn following heavy seedfall, but remain at low abundance in the intervening times.” – N. Alterio et al. NZ J. Ecology, 1999
“increases in not only mouse, but also bird (and possibly invertebrate) densities may contribute to the high productivity of stoats in the year following a Nothofagus seedfall…
“When we compared stoat diet in the high-density year with that in the following two years, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of occurrence of birds or invertebrates in stoat guts…
“Stoats did not eat birds less frequently when mice were abundant, a result also found by King (1983)…
“Mouse and stoat numbers can rise after poor mast years…so assessing potential impacts on threatened species may require a better predictor than heavy beech seeding alone” – E. Murphy & J. Dowding, NZ J. Ecology, 1995
“It is likely that seedfall is only one of the factors regulating ship rat numbers in beech forest…
“ship rats were not an important food for stoats in the Hollyford and Eglinton Valleys even in years of relatively high rat abundance (King & Moller 1997).” – B. Studholme, Conservation Advisory Notes, 2000
“Nest predation did not increase in the breeding season following full beech mast-seeding in 1995, when stoat (Mustela erminea) numbers were beginning to rise” – G. Elliot & J. Kemp, WWF Final Report, 1999
“…satiation of predators and consequent reduced predation rates on birds is now thought to occasionally occur when mice reach extremely high densities (C.M. King, pers. comm.).” – D. Kelly et al., NZ J. Ecology 2005
Science and History show that:
1080 Poison is Dangerous
“A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests…1080 is too dangerous for general use” – S. Barnett & M. Spencer, Journal of Hygiene, 1949
1080 Poison is Persistent
“in dry or cold conditions it could take months to break down…
“the applicants…clarified that the breakdown of 1080 in the aquatic environment would be better described as dilution” – Environmental Risk Management Authority, 2007
1080 Poison is Ill-advised
“It is not advisable to expose nationally critical or endangered birds to aerial 1080 baiting, unless evidence from trials or other sources shows the birds do not consume non-toxic baits…
“we are unaware of any observational studies that have examined the impact of aerial 1080 application on rock wrens…
“Although the presence and protection of remnant mohua populations is often one of the drivers for aerial distribution of 1080 baits in South Island beech forests…the fate of individual mohua following such operations remains unknown.” – C. Veltman et al., NZ J. Ecology, 2014
“Kakariki (parakeet)…Dead chicks in a failed nest in the Hurunui Valley operation contained 1080 residues…two unmonitored Kakariki were found dead with 1080 residues in their tissues.” – TBFree New Zealand AEE, 2014
“The risk of toxin-related mortality is yet to be quantified at the population level for 11 native bird species that are known to have died” – T. Green et al., NZ J. Ecology, 2013
1080 Poison Causes Pest Plagues…..are these the real reason for Doc’s current “Battle for the Birds”?
“ship rat abundance indices increased nearly fivefold after possum control and remained high for up to 6 years…
“the typical outcome for most pulsed possum control is an uncontrolled ship rat population in the presence of a low-density possum population for most of the 3-7 year cycle.” – P. Sweeetapple & G. Nugent, NZ J. Ecology, 2007
“Intermittent control of possums and ship rats may have the nett effect of increasing ship rats for most of the time.” – J. Innes et al., NZ J Ecology 2010
The mouse index declined in the non-treatment area (30 to 14%), but increased in the treatment area (23 to 30%).” – DoC Rare BitsNewsletter, 2004
“mice are so far the Achilles heel of many programmes, with mouse numbers irrupting” – D. Armstrong et al., NZ J. Ecology 2010
“mice rapidly increased to be more abundant than they were prior to the control operation compared with sites not sown with 1080 baits. Now, 18 months after the initial 1080 operation, possum numbers remain low but rat numbers have increased to higher levels than prior to baiting and compared with sites that weren’t poisoned.” – G. Nugent et al., Kararehe Kino Vertebrate Pest Research, 2008
Because control operations utilising 1080 may induce bait shyness, are only temporarily effective, and often create favourable conditions for noxious animals by reducing competition, and releasing nesting sites and feeding area this Council belives that alternative means of dealing with problem animals should be investigated” – NZ Nature Conservation Council, 1977
1080 can increase predation on birds
“stoats are likely to have the greatest effect on birds after successful 1080 poison operations” – E. Murphy et al., NZ J. Ecology, 1998
“The reduction in rats, the main prey of stoats, may lead to an increase in stoat predations on birds…
…The abundance of introduced birds is more likely to form the bulk of stoat prey until rats become more plentiful again” – DoC Operational Report, Otira 2011
“A dramatic increase in fledgling mortality has been noted coinciding with a change to the pest control regime…eleven of fourteen fledglings have died. Nine of these were probably (some certainly) killed by stoats…The pest control regime was an aerial 1080 pollard operation in October.” – DoC Rare Bits Newsletter, 2002
“Four months after an effective possum and rat knock-down by a 20,000-ha aerial 1080 operation over Tongariro Forest, stoats reappeared in the centre of the forest and began killing kiwi chicks. So far five of the 11 chicks have been predated, and all in the centre of the treatment area” – DoC Rare Bits Newsletter, 2002
“The interaction between pest species is poorly understood. For example, rodent numbers sometimes increase following possum control operations, which may lead to an increase in stoat populations and a consequent decrease (through predation) of some bird populations… – G. Nugent et al., Kararehe Kino Vertebrate Pest Research, 2008
1080 is being applied again and again in Kea habitat
“Prior to each of the four occasions (2006, 2008, 2009, and 2012) that resource consent needed to be exercised, proposed operations were publicly notified” – DoC Operational Report, Arthurs Pass 2013
“We must effectively control the pests that threaten our forests, but 1080 poison should be a measure of last resort.” – NZ Green Party website, 2014
Killing stoats and possums will not help kea
“Kea nests appear to be relatively immune to predation from introduced mammals…Our results agree with a previous study of kea nesting at Arthur’s Pass, where no evidence of significant nest predation was found (Jackson 1963).” – G. Elliot & J. Kemp, WWF Final Report, 1999
“During the last hundred years Keas have shared their environment with rats Rattus spp. and stoats Mustela erminea. I have found no evidence of these animals affecting Keas…
“Twice I have found a dead possum Trichosaurus vulpecula within five yards of a Kea nest. The opossum frequently chooses holes similar to a kea nest as a den and perhaps these two opossums prospected the Kea nests.” – J. Jackson, Notornis 16, 1969
We found 44 nests in 25 sites and were able to assess the nesting success of 40 of them…The only nest failure we can confidently attribute to a specific predator was caused by a stoat”
G. Elliot & J. Kemp, Department of Conservation Internal Science Series, 2004
(N.b. monitoring nests is likely to attract predators)
IF it was advisable for humans to interfere during a mast year, this could be done WITHOUT aerial 1080 poisoning:
“Several studies on other forest birds have found that trapping can reduce the high predation pressure during stoat irruptions…a very intensive trapping programme significantly reduced stoat predation on breeding mohua during a stoat irruption.” – D. Kelly et al., NZ J. Ecology 2005
“Mustelid tracking rates were again below 5%…highlighting the ability of the form of trapping programme being used to maintain pressure on an invasive predator population” – G. Harper et al., DoC RNRP Annual Report, 2013
“Surprisingly, the trapping outperformed the poisoning method, reducing rat tracking indices much faster and keeping them at very low levels for longer than the poisoning method.” – DoC Rare Bits Newsletter, 2002
Please help save the kea and other precious native creatures from 1080 poison.
“What a poor, curtailed, mutilated sterile world we threaten our descendants with! Man and the rat sharing it – fit mates in many ways – in their desperate, deplorable, gnawing energy, in their ruthless destruction of every obstacle.” – Guthrie-Smith 1936
Cited in D. Towns et al, Biological Invasions, 2006
Playing with these big parrots, in car parks and at ski fields, is one of the best experiences NZ has to offer animal lovers. But the kea’s home, the alpine herb fields and rainforests of southern NZ, will be poisoned by the Government very soon:
“In the South Island, 23 pest control operations, covering approximately 700,000 ha of beech forest, are planned for the coming late winter and spring” – National Pest Control Agencies 2014
Cinnamon-flavoured, cereal food pellets will be spread from the air, twice. The first time they will be just flavoured cereal. The second time, they will contain deadly 1080 poison. Kea will eat the cereal baits and die. They will also be poisoned if they drink from ponds and alpine tarns where the baits lie, or scavenge poisoned carcasses or eat the dying insects surrounding the poisonous baits. It was first recognised that the government’s poisonings were killing kea in 1963.
In 2008, government monitoring of the kea began. The monitoring showed that large numbers of kea were dying.
“A total of 150 kea were monitored and 20 keas deaths resulted from consuming 1080…It is also possible that kea deaths were not detected at the other sites due to small sample size.” – DOC Code of Practice for Aerial 1080 in Kea Habitat, 2014
At one site (North Okarito) 77% of the monitored kea died. 1080 poisoning is very cruel. It causes extreme spasms and vomiting, with suffering for many hours or days.
In 2014, the poisoned baits are to be spread
- In midwinter (before 31st Aug), when the birds are hungry, and
- further up the mountains into the alpine herb and tussock fields
“The ‘performance standards to reduce kea deaths’ no longer include a standard to avoid sowing open areas above the tree line…
we are planning to sow 0.15% 1080 Pellets in some open alpine areas to protect rock wren” – DOC Code of Practice for Aerial 1080 in Kea Habitat, 2014
No bird repellent will be used. No repellent has been successful so far.
Each year, New Zealand aerially distributes massive quantities of acutely lethal, poison-laced foodstuffs into its wilderness ecosystems. The toxin most commonly used is sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080), an acutely toxic, oxygen metabolism-disrupting agent with very high toxicity to most air-breathing organisms. New Zealand ecological conservation officials claim that aerial poison operations are an essential strategy to protect vulnerable indigenous flora
and fauna from exotic mammalian pests, and that the benefits of aerial poison operations outweigh their risks.
This manuscript presents a critical review of the existing scientific literature on the non-target effects of aerial poison operations in New Zealand.
This review reveals that in this complex, multifactorial situation, the relevant science has been selectively interpreted, selectively studied, and moreover, left grossly incomplete in its scope, possibly in favour of non-environmental, short-term economic interests. Using the existing scientific information on non-target effects of aerial poison operations, a basic cost-benefit analysis employing a numerical scoring system was performed.
This cost-benefit analysis, which compared the potential costs and benefits to native species of aerial poison operations versus unchecked possum populations at their peak density, indicated that aerial poison operations have twice as many potential costs to native species as potential benefits, and that aerial poison operations were potentially twice as costly to native species as unmanaged possum populations at their peak density.
The potential for widespread poisoning of New Zealand’s large number of endemic and threatened/endangered omnivorous, insectivorous, and carnivorous bird species by the uncontrolled distribution of poison-laced food throughout an entire ecosystem is a serious issue worthy of international concern and immediate action.
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For many decades New Zealand has been racked by arguments over the widespread use of aerial 1080 poison. Both sides of the argument are supported by intelligent and committed conservationists so why can’t consensus be found when both sides care deeply about the birds and the forests.
The answer lies in what the opposing parties expect the outcomes from the aerial poisoning operations to be. From the pro-poisoning side we have numerous examples put forward of the results of successful operations.
An example of this is the widespread media coverage of the results from the Tongariro Forest Sanctuary where a 45% improvement in fantail nesting success was hailed as an example of the successful use of aerial poisoning operations.
This result was honest and truthful and the pro-poisoning group, and the general public at large, had every reason to be impressed and to support continuing poisoning operations in the belief that further ecological gains could be made from more such operations.
What was not widely reported though were the results of fantail nesting success in the same area in the following years and these are as follows[i]:-
2000 – 20.2% nesting success baseline estimated from reported results.
2001 – Widespread aerial 1080 drop.
2002 – 45% nesting success from 32 nests.
2003 – 11.76% nesting success from 62 nests.
2004 – 12.2% nesting success from 47 nests.
2005 – 16% nesting success from 32 nests.
This is a perfect example of why we have two different opinions of aerial 1080 poisoning operations.
One group, the aerial poison supporters, see the results after one year and rejoice. Those who oppose aerial poisoning operations look at the results after three years in dismay and this is why we have so much conflict.
We are looking at different results.
Does it matter? – It sure does.
This operation showed clearly that although the aerial poisoning operation helped individual fantails with their nesting success in the year after the poisoning operation it did not extend to a benefit to the fantail population as a whole and this is where it matters. Any pest control operation for ecological benefit is pointless unless it translates into more birds in the population three and four and more years later.
These fantail results are not one off events, I do not have the baseline values but other examples are:-
Kiwi call frequency after an aerial 1080 operation[ii]
2001: 2.08 calls/hr.
2004: 1.4 calls/hr.
2005: 0.9 calls/hr.
2006: 0.6 calls/hr.
Blue Duck pairs after a 2001 aerial 1080 operation [iii]
Following a large aerial 1080 operation in 2001 the five-minute bird counts in 2005 showed a dramatic decline in:-
tomtit (down 77%)
fantail (down 77%)
There is a large list of operations where widespread aerial 1080 poisoning operations produced marked increases in bird populations in the short term but the benefits were not carried on to the population level. In ecological benefit terms, they were ineffective.
Why is this?
Why don’t the short term results translate into more birds in the population?
To find this out we need to go to the science.
A hint of the problem was given to me by John Innes of Landcare Research many years ago during a lecture on tui habitat enhancement.
John used a whiteboard to list the three most important predators of our native bird species and he wrote them up on the board in the following order of importance:-
What he was explaining, in a very effective way, was that although cats take some birds, as do possums, stoats, myna and a variety of other species, they don’t come close to rats as the major predator of our native birds.
Rats have been around for about 700 years and in that time have been the sole or a contributing factor in the extinction of 34 of our native species.[iv]
With such a notorious record we need to have a closer look at how it is, that even today, rats are able to unleash such an onslaught on our indigenous species.
A pointer is given in websites such as the ‘Northland Regional Council’ where they state “The impacts on these species have been monitored on only a few occasions. Ship rat populations were reduced by 87 – 100% following six aerial 1080 operations for possum control but the population recovered within four to six months.”
Another concerning point is raised in the website ‘Enuf is enuf’.
Despite initially reducing rat populations with aerial 1080 the rat’s prodigious ability to breed quickly overcomes the loss so that by 18 months after a drop the rat population is twice the pre-1080 population. By 25 months the rats are up by nearly 300%.”
These comments are startling but do not identify the science to back up the claims. Without references to good science they might merely be opinion.
To get sound answers that we can have confidence in we need to turn to science.
Most recent research in this country has been undertaken in an effort to support the use of widespread aerial poisoning. As such the aim of the science has largely been to identify the BENEFITS of the poisoning campaigns not the IMPACTS of them.
It has been widely identified that our science is contaminated by what is known as ‘paymaster bias’ whereby the researchers unconsciously tend to produce the answers the employing agency wants to find. There are large numbers of examples of this unconscious bias internationally (the impact of cigarette smoking on health is a good example) and it is not the purpose of this document to expand on that but merely to point out that, because of it, good science into the impacts of aerial poisoning operations is hard to find.
Unfortunately, in general, the only facts we can draw on are the small snippets and aside comments which appear from time to time in the mainstream science.
These small gems form the basis of the discussions which follow.
The comments in the websites are supported by a science paper which states [v]:
“even when rat densities were reduced by 90%, they recovered within 2-5 months (Innis et al 1995).”
Other science supports this observation[vi]
“Ship rat numbers can be reduced by 90% but this effect is short lived (Warburton, 1989; Innis and Williams, 1991)”
And in the same paper the comment after a widespread aerial 1080 poisoning operation on the 10th September 1990
“In the following January rat abundance was still only 11% of the pre-poison average, but by April there was no significant difference between pre- and post-poison rat indices (Innis and Williams, 1991)”
In other words the rat population had completely recovered after seven months.
A Landcare Research paper[vii] notes
“The 1080 poison killed most of the possums and ship rats in the operation area but not the mice. However it took less than a year for the ship rat numbers to bounce back to densities they were previously (5 per ha). In the next six months rat numbers doubled on the 1080 sites and remained at this level for the duration of the study.”
And this comment[viii]
“This study presents evidence that there was a substantial and sustained increase in ship rat abundance over several years in the podocarp-hardwood forests of Waihaha following the initiation of [aerial 1080] possum control.”
And more warnings[ix]
“in the 1080 block no rats were tracked 2 months after possum control then tracking rates steadily increased to very high levels (85%-88%) over the next two years . As a result, rat tracking was significantly lower in the 1080 block than in the non-treatment block in November 2002 and March 2003 but significantly higher in November 2004 and March 2005 peaking at 3.2-fold higher.”
And another one although the evidence is now getting to be overwhelming[x]:
“At Waihaha, possum numbers were first reduced to low levels in 1994. This resulted in a sustained 4-5 fold increase in rat abundance. Possum control was repeated in August 2000 using aerially sown 1080 baits and provided effective rat control for about a year before their numbers rose to the high levels seen prior to August 2000.”
These burgeoning rat populations generated by aerial poisoning operations have a worrying impact further downstream of the event as highlighted by Landcare Research[xi]
“These results suggest that the huge sustained increase in rat abundance following initial possum control in 1994 was reversed by further control in 2000. Since then rat populations have increased rapidly. This increase may have serious consequences not only for native species preyed on by rats but also for native species threatened by stoats or cats as both these predators may increase when rats (a major element in their diet) are very abundant.”
Remember that stoats have been recognised as the major predator of kaka.
It should be remembered that not all the stoats are killed by secondary poisoning and the ones left behind have just lost their main food source of rats so what do they eat now? Native birds and invertebrates that’s what, as shown in this paper:[xii]
STOAT DIET CHANGE AFTER POISONING RATS
|Diet||Before Poisoning||After Poisoning|
The harm to invertebrate populations is further identified in other papers such as:[xiii]
“In the poisoned block, the number of large invertebrates known to be eaten by rats soared after rat numbers were reduced to near zero, and then plummeted as rat numbers exploded to very high levels. In contrast, in the un-poisoned area, the numbers of rats and of the common large invertebrates remained more or less stable.”
And a sobering, or perhaps terrifying, comment[xiv]
“Intermittent control of possums and ship rats may have the net effect of increasing ship rats most of the time (Sweetapple and Nugent 2007)”
What these researchers are saying is that an untreated area of forest will have a lower average number of rats than an area which receives regular 1080 drops.
This is exactly the opposite of what is intended by aerial poisoning pest control for ecological benefits.
The science points noted above all indicate very bad things happening in our forests after aerial 1080 operations have artificially boosted rat populations to levels which no indigenous species can possibly hope to cope with in the medium to long term.
I have personal experience of these vast plagues of rats after aerial 1080 operations in Pureora Forest Park.
One evening I set a trap because we had rats everywhere, before I had a chance to get into my sleeping bag the trap went off, I thought it had sprung itself so went to reset it only to find it had already caught a rat, I reset it and before I could get to my sleeping bag a second time the trap went off again but this time I had caught three rats at once. At that point I gave up.
On another occasion I set a rat trap on the roof of my bivvy, as I stepped back a rat ran out from under the roof and immediately got caught, as it was kicking its last it flipped the trap upside down and was still twitching when a second rat ran out and crawled under the trap to eat the cheese bait. I was less than two metres from all this activity.
This gives an indication of how desperate rats get when large populations face starvation.
Imagine a wee short tailed bat fossicking on the forest floor amongst that teeming horde of assassins.
It spells doom for many native birds, plants, animals, and invertebrates.
Why do rats repopulate a poisoned area so quickly?
The reason is that during the poisoning operations we remove some of their predators (secondary poisoning kills cats and stoats) and competition for food and shelter.
In other words we artificially create a perfect storm for rat breeding.
When we add the enormous breeding potential of rats to this perfect storm we have provided a disaster in the making as noted here:[xv]
“Should a large percentage of rats face extermination, those that survive will multiply their reproductive rate and restore the old population level to such an extent that just two rats have the ability to create a lineage of a million descendants in 18 months tops!”
“Rats are capable of reproducing at about 3 months of age. After mating pregnancy lasts for 21-24 days and averaging 6-11 young rats in a litter”
“Female rats can breed again 1 to 2 days after giving birth.”
In the same time it takes a native bird species to produce four young a pair of rats can produce 4000.
Another huge advantage provided to the rat population recovery efforts is the unusual breeding cycle of its major predator the stoat. We know that stoats eat rats, lots of rats, but their population recovery after a poison operation is delayed by a process called delayed implantation (sometimes called embryonic diapause). It is a fascinating subject for researchers but sufficient for us to note that:[xvi]
“Mating occurs in early summer, but births do not occur until the spring of the following year, as development of the fertilised egg is delayed for eight to nine months.”
This extremely long lag phase in the stoat population growth curve gives the rats a huge head start in developing a population with minimal predation.
How can we have ignored the severe negative impacts on our indigenous species from aerial 1080 operations for so long?
Perhaps our New Zealand science is unsound, biased, or just plain wrong!
To check this hypothesis we need to look at 1080 poisoning projects targeting rats in another country to see if their results confirm or oppose our conclusions.
Researchers in England undertook a rat poisoning campaign using hand placed 1080 baits in an effort to identify what happens to a rat population after poisoning.
Some important points noted in this science[xvii] are:-
“thus after 6 months the rat population was about the same size whether the starting point was over 3000 g or less than 1000 g.”
This science uses the weight of bait uptake to estimate changes in rat population density, the reference to 3000 g indicates a high population (because of the high bait uptake) and the 1000 g infers a lower population because only a small amount of bait was taken.
The point is it didn’t matter how severely the populations had been reduced they all recovered to pre-poisoning levels within six months.
The most important censuses in district B were those of Period 5, made after the very successful double treatment. These censuses show an exceedingly rapid rate of increase in the number of rats, which within three months brought the population to a point near the curve for period 4.”
This comment refers to a double poison trial which reduced the rat population by 97.1% but that population subsequently increased to a level equal to the trial where only 87% of the rats were removed. This supports other conclusions in this science which highlights that rat populations return to pre-poison levels very very rapidly.
This trend is noted again:
The apparent total obliteration of the rat population was followed 6 weeks later by a census indicating that the population was now restored to the level to be expected had only 90% of the rats been killed.”
The summary to this science paper notes:
Poison treatments after pre-baiting, at intervals of 6 months, reduced the rat population of each district to less than 10% of the maximum. A rapid restoration of the population followed, and the level reached in 6 months was near the maximum.”
It is clear that the result of science overseas is unambiguous in its support of our own.
So why don’t we do aerial 1080 poison drops every year to keep the rats under control?
The answer to that is easy.
Aerial 1080 poison drops kill native birds too, lots of birds, and lots of other native species as well. This fact is freely acknowledged by the pro-poisoning groups.
After an aerial poisoning operation it takes several breeding cycles for the poisoned bird populations to struggle back to pre-poison levels. If the poisoning cycles are too frequent then some native species will quickly be eliminated. It is possible that some already have.
Remember also that these poisoned bird populations have to try and regain their pre-poison population levels in the face of an artificially induced rat onslaught.
Other overseas science disagrees with the way we regularly utilise aerial 1080 for rat, and other, pest control operations.
One such paper concludes:[xviii]
“Poisoning campaigns with 1080 should be used only when they are the best choice from a suite of alternative methods, rather than as a frequently repeated panacea for pest control.”
Why don’t we know more about the negative impacts of aerial 1080 poisoning operations?
The main reason is because we are NOT LOOKING!!!
Poison operations are expensive and the point frequently raised is that if we spend money on monitoring then that is less area we can afford to poison.
Very few, if any, resource consents for poisoning operations require the applicants to monitor the operation for unforeseen negative impacts.
We have scientists who warn against this blasé attitude such as Clare Veltman when she raised a red flag with this important comment: [xix]
“Randomized blind replicated experiments may permit strong inference about the risks to non-target forest animals from aerial application of baits containing 1080, but no such experiment has ever been done in New Zealand.”
And again in this comment:[xx]:
“First, indirect effects of control operations do have the potential to reduce the planned-for benefit. Second, thresholds in the strength of control employed can potentially occur, across which indirect effects switch from being of conservation benefit to being of conservation concern.”
And a final comment from overseas science:[xxi]
“Without at least some post-eradication monitoring, managers cannot possibly catch totally unanticipated side effects or know whether and when to implement contingency plans for dealing with undesired outcomes.”
The main reason we are not looking for unintended consequences is that the Department of Conservation has an institutionalised infatuation with aerial 1080 poisoning operations and uses its position to produce public information which can almost be classed as dishonest.
An excellent example of this is when I received two kokako research science papers from the Department under the Official Information Act.
The cover letter states that:
“The first two papers show long term improvements in kokako populations after aerial 1080 operations.”
Studying the science shows no such thing.
Aerial 1080 was used annually from 1990 to 1993 but the graph of the number of territorial adults on page 209 shows a gradual loss of population over this time.
It is only after 1993 when targeted pest control using brodifacoum in bait stations was instigated that the kokako population increased markedly. 1080 poison was used in 1995- 1996 but it was placed in bait stations in place of brodifacoum that season not aerially broadcast.
It can be seen from this that although the Department was strictly correct in stating that the population did increase after aerial 1080 operations the inference should not have been that aerial 1080 operation was the cause of it as it is simply not true.
It is like saying that the sea got rough after the petrol in my car ran out. It is true but totally irrelevant and mischievous.
In another example a high DOC official stated on national television that without aerial 1080 the Mapara kokako population would not exist. This is in the face of the science produced by the project which shows that the kokako population continued to decline while aerial 1080 was being used.
These sorts of statements are designed to be misleading so the general public remains supportive of unscientific and ineffective pest control campaigns and their funding streams.
Why is this?
Why is the Department of Conservation continuing to support aerial 1080 operations in the face of overwhelming evidence showing it is harmful to our native species?
Why are they blind to the science? – I don’t know.
The Department of Conservation has a large staff of outdoors oriented ecological experts with a passion for our native critters.
Why are they turning a blind eye to the destruction of native species which the artificially induced rat populations are causing?
Is it simply that they don’t know what else to do?
Is it because they have been aerially poisoning for so long that it is now entrenched and “just the way we do things”?
Is it because they have supported aerial 1080 poisoning operations for so long that they are now afraid of losing face if they admit that they have been wrong for so long?
Is it just because aerial 1080 is the easiest and they don’t know what to do next but have to be seen to be doing something?
Ponder this simple question.
This year is a mast year and the Department has received around 12 million dollars in extra funding for aerial poison operations to limit rat populations (remember aerial 1080 does NOT kill mice).
We know from the science that the operations are going to generate very large rat populations in the years following the poison drops.
What is the difference between high rat numbers created by a mast year and high rat numbers created by the control operations themselves?
The only difference is the 12 million dollars.
No doubt if any New Zealand ecological scientists read this document they will say that everything I have identified here is old knowledge which has been around for ages, and it has.
The question to ask then is “What are they doing about it?”
An even more important question is “What are we doing about it?”
We have been misinformed by a whole series of organisations including Animal Health Board, Department of Conservation, Regional Councils, Forest and Bird, even the Commissioner for the Environment and Central Government.
All have played a part in what can only be classed as propaganda in their push for aerial 1080 operations alleging benefits to indigenous wildlife when the science shows that it cannot be true at the population level which is where it matters.
Yes we definitely have ‘Silent Forests’ in New Zealand, no question, and both the pro-aerial poison and anti-aerial poison groups agree on this.
Until we fully understand WHY we have silent forests we don’t stand a chance of developing successful strategies to ‘bring back the birds’.
It is a given that rats kill large numbers of native species.
It is also a given that aerial 1080 operations breed large numbers of rats.
Research is the search for the truth.
Management is the application of the truth.
There shouldn’t be any argument.
[i] The Annual 2005/2006
[ii] Tongariro Forest Kiwi Sanctuary Annual Report 2005/2006
[iii] Rare Bits. 2001
[iv] Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Alan Tennyson and Paul Martinson
[v] New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 2001. Vol 28 57-78
[vi] Change of diet of stoats following poisoning of rats in a New Zealand forest. Elaine Murphy and Philip Bradfield
[vii] Species interactions and consequences of pest control in forest ecosystems. Protect. Autumn 2010
[viii] Ship rat demography and diet following possum control in a mixed podocarp-hardwood forest. Sweetapple et al Available from http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/
[ix] Effect of reduced possum density on rodent and stoat abundance in podocarp-hardwood forests. Sweetapple et al DOC Research and Development Series 231
[x] Kararehe Kino Vertebrate Past Research. Dec 2007
[xi] He Korero Paihama. Issue 17 June 2002
[xii] Change in diet of stoats following poisoning of rats in a New Zealand forest. Short communication. Elaine Murphy and Philip Bradfield.
[xiii] Vertebrate Pest Research. Dec 2007
[xiv] Feathers to Fur. The ecological transformation of Aotearoa/New Zealand Innes et al.: What limits NZ forest birds? Available at http://www.newzealandecology.org/nzje/
[xvii] Population Dynamics of Sewer Rats. S.A Barnett Dept of Zoology, University of Glasgow and A.H Bathard Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Tolworth, Surrey.
[xviii] Proceedings of the Fifteenth Vertebrate Pest Control Conference 1992. University of Nebraska. The Effect on Australian Animals of 1080 Poisoning Campaigns. John C McIlroy. Division of Wildlife and Ecology.
[xix]Uncertainties remaining about non-target effects of aerial 1080 operations and experimental designs for exploring them. Veltman and Westbrooke.
[xx] Unexpected Consequences Of Vertebrate Pest Control: Predictions From A Four-Species Community Model. Tompkins and Veltman
[xxi] It’s often better to eradicate, but can we eradicate better? E S Zavaleta. Dept of Integrative Biology, University of California.
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Research by the National Poisons Centre and the Otago University’s Pharmacy School which was presented at an International Poisons Congress in 2008 found that dogs across New Zealand are at extreme risk of poisoning from 1080(1).
The researchers carried out a postal survey of 125 randomly-selected veterinarians. Fifty-two vets responded and within their practices over a one year period, 65 dogs poisoned by 1080 had been dealt with. Three of the 52 respondents had each treated 10 cases. Only 25% of the treated dogs survived (only those that had not shown clinical signs of poisoning before treatment).
The 65 dogs will be a fraction of actual cases dealt with because not all vets in the country were involved in the survey, and not all dogs poisoned with 1080 will get to the vet. The researchers told the conference that in New Zealand “Poisoning of dogs by 1080 is widespread with no defined management in place.”
This finding contrasts sharply with what our Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) claimed in its reassessment of 1080 poison in 2007. According to ERMA “Controls in place to ensure dogs are not exposed are adequate” (2)
It also makes nonsense of the claim made this June by our Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (Dr Jan Wright) that only 8 dogs have been reported killed in New Zealand by 1080 poison since 2007. Dr Wright quoted only the number of dogs in incidents reported to ERMA about 1080 operations. The “8 dogs” figure is clearly a gross misrepresentation of the actual number of dogs killed. This is just one of a large number of misleading statements in her report on 1080, which is heavily biased towards its use, as was the ERMA reassessment. (3)
Unfortunately for dogs and their owners, it is likely that the real number of deaths has actually increased in recent years. This is because the area over which 1080 poison is being spread has been increasing; a significant increase in its use (proposed by the Department of Conservation (DoC) and the Animal Health Board (AHB)) was a major reason for ERMA’s re-assessment of 1080 (Committee Decision, page 15).
Furthermore, the controls outlined by ERMA in 2007 require that signs warning of 1080 poison must be removed, after remaining in place for a minimum of six months (or less if toxin removal or testing indicates the area is safe)(4). This control was imposed without any knowledge of how long 1080 remains a risk in carcasses, although it was admitted that “1080 residues in the carcasses of poisoned possums may be very slow to break down” (5).
ERMA stated in its assessment “There is limited information available on the degradation of 1080 in animal carcasses..It is clear that 1080 residues remain in the guts of dead animals for prolonged periods (at least 75 days under cool winter conditions..) and only degrade slowly” (6). Furthermore the low rate of degradation “may be a function of low pH in the gut, absence of bacteria able to degrade 1080, toxicity to gut bacteria, low levels of..invertebrate activity, accompanied by cool temperatures at the time of 1080 bait distribution.” (7)
This possible effect of the toxin helping to preserve the carcass has not been taken into account by DoC when drawing up its operating procedures. For some years now DoC has monitored carcass breakdown at poisoned sites but these carcasses “can be sourced from anywhere” and are not required to be poisoned (8). According to ERMA, the AHB (the biggest user of 1080 in NZ) and other users merely assume that six months after the operation the signs can come down.
Carcasses of 1080-poisoned animals are a huge risk to dogs because of the persistence of the poison and because dogs are so susceptible to it. Just 1.75 mg of 1080 poison will kill a 25 kg dog, and enough poison is spread aerially per hectare to kill over 2,500 dogs (Table 1) (and 125 times more poison than required per possum). 1080 poison concentrations in possum gut contents were 30.6 mg/kg after 25 days and 4.9 mg/kg after 75 days in one study (9). In another study 1080-poisoned rabbit carcasses became more toxic as they aged, possibly because of dehydration (10).
Table 1: 1080 application rate and killing power per hectare by species
* for 0.15% 1080/Kg applied at 3 kg/ha (4.5 gms/ha or one level teaspoon). For lower concentrations and sowing rates figures will be
LD50 mg/kg body wt
Average species wt (kg)
LD50 (mg) for this weight
mg 1080 /ha*
|LD50 = dose per kg body weight to have a 50% kill risk|
Source: Dr Hugh Barr, NZ Wildlands Biodiversity Management Society Inc.
Dogs exposed to less than lethal doses of 1080 are likely to suffer damage to the heart, other organs and reproductive tissues, and unborn puppies are likely to develop deformities, as these effects are seen in other mammals (11). Water supplies are a likely source of on-going exposure to 1080, wherever poisoned carcasses enter them (12).
Coupled with the risk of poisoned carcasses is the fact that the baits themselves can remain toxic for months, especially when carrot is used, and when baits fall in dry areas. An example of the on-going risk was 78 sheep that died after grazing an airstrip used to load 1080 poisoned carrot bait, 20 weeks after the operation(13). In Fiordland, some cereal baits “looked quite fresh” after seven weeks, according to a report from DoC field staff (Waitutu 1080 operation, 2010) (14).
Another blow to dog owners from the ERMA re-assessment was its decision to remove the requirement to erect a sign warning of forthcoming poisoning. No prior warning sign at the site is required now (15).
Historically, concerned officials have attempted to prevent the use of 1080 because of its extreme risk and cruelty to dogs. For example a biologist working for the US Fish & Wildlife Service wrote in 1948: “the spasm period of victims, particularly the canines, seems unduly violent…The severe spasms associated with 1080..[is an] outstanding objection” (16). Another example is a report from 1972 that stated that our own Rabbit Destruction Council had suggested arsenic as a substitute for 1080 due to the danger to farmers’ dogs (17).
Dogs owners are advised to read public notices carefully and to consider all 1080-treated areas as extremely hazardous.
References (note that the ERMA documents with reference numbers can be found on this website) ERMA Documents
(1) Hope, A., Smith M., Temple, W., 2008. Clinical Toxicology Volume 46, abstract 137
(2) ERMA Committee Decision, Appendix B, p 200: 1
(3) A scientific evaluation of the PCE’s views on 1080, this website
(4) ERMA Committee Decision, p 100: 1, 2
(5) ERMA Committee Decision, p 65: 1
(6) ERMA Agency, Appendix C, page 369: 2
(7) ERMA Agency, Appendix C, page 369: 4
(8) Bait and Carcass monitoring Guideline 2011 (DoC document DOCDM649647)
(9) ERMA Agency Appendix N p 727: 4
(10) ERMA Agency Appendix C p 371: 1
(11) Index to ERMA Documents, Health section, this website
(12) ERMA Agency Appendix C, p 370: 4; M, p 700: 2
(13) ERMA Agency, Appendix F, p 727: 4
(14) Waitutu Field Trip November 2910 (DoC Report by P. Dilks & T. Greene)
(15) ERMA Decision, Appendix A, p 167: 3
(16) Submitter to ERMA no. 9074
(17) ERMA Applicants’ References p 15: 1