Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
349 13 Agency App. C “Data gaps..reproductive toxicity to birds” (lizards, invertebrates, frogs, bats, fish not studied either)
414 2 Agency App. C “the time to onset and time to death are long [in frogs and reptiles]”
415 2 Agency App. C “NZ native frogs are taxonomically [distinct] and there is significant uncertainty as to their sensitivity to 1080”
415 3 Agency App. C “The trials [on toxicity of 1080 in bait, prey and water to NZ native frogs] were preliminary, rather than providing standard end point data”
415 4 Agency App. C “12 adult frogs of each species  [NZ native frogs]..were dehydrated..prior to placement in [1080] treated water, presumably to attain a ‘worst case’ state prior to exposure”
415 5 Agency App. C “Control solutions..had a measured concentration of 0.2 mg/kg..residues were..measured in the control frogs”
416 1 Agency App. C “A number of frogs died during the study, including one of two control Archey’s frogs which contained 1.4 mg 1080/kg”
416 2 Agency App. C “Only one frog of each species [Hochsetter’s and Archie’s] was used for each treatment noted in the previous trials, small numbers of test animals limit any conclusions which can be drawn from the study”
416 4 Agency App. C “Weight gains in frogs exposed to treated flies [were] positive, but nil or slightly negative in the controls”
417 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for grass frog 36.8 – 98.3 hours]
520 1 Agency App. F “Hochsetter’s..frogs were monitored..during an aerial change was detected in the Hochsetter’s..population but [statistically] there was only a very small probability of detecting an impact because the number of frogs [was] too conclusions could be drawn”
520 2 Agency App. F “Archey’s frogs were monitored..during an aerial operation..declines in numbers occurred in both treatment and control areas [during the four months after control]..attributed to seasonal and/or disturbance factors”
520 3 Agency App. F “One Archey’s frog was found foaming at the mouth [which] may have indicated 1080 poisoning..however other signs of 1080 poisoning..were not observed..either due to short observation periods..or because they did not occur”
534 6 Agency App. F “Prey switching by cats and ferrets from rabbits to other species may occur following rabbit operations, with native skinks highly vulnerable to large swings in rabbit numbers”
723 10 Agency App. N “The Agency has made no assessment of risks [of 1080] to frogs”
119 2 Applicants’ references “Reptiles and amphibians generally were the slowest to first show signs of poisoning” (McIlroy, 1986)
41 4 Committee Decision “..the benefits of the use of 1080 to native lizards and frogs have not been directly demonstrated”
41 5 Committee Decision “Ground control operations could protect known populations [of lizards and frogs]”
64 1 Committee Decision “trials exposing native frogs to 1080 residues in water and to cereal bait containing 1080 were inconclusive the small numbers of animals used and their tendency to hide..[reflecting] the difficulties associated with testing many native species”
64 2 Committee Decision “the small numbers involved make conclusions difficult [regarding effects of 1080 on frogs]”
64 3 Committee Decision “low sowing rates of bait in forest environments reduce the likelihood of lizards and frogs being exposed”
64 6 Committee Decision “The Committee has amended the control on the use of carrot bait to ensure that it is screened to remove small pieces [which will help to adequately manage the risks to native lizards and frogs]”
126 4 Committee Decision “the existing and new controls..[adjust level of risk to frogs and lizards]” (none of the controls addresses prey switching by predators, eating of baits or secondary poisoning)
126 3 Committee Decision “Risks [to bats, native birds, frogs and lizards] are generally well understood by users of…1080 and can be managed”
133 3 Committee Decision “three significant risks..with aerial 1080..[3] effects on native herpetofauna (frogs and lizards) following direct exposure to pellets” (omitted carrots, secondary poisoning, prey switching)
196 1 Decision App.B “Compliance with best practice for preparation and distribution of bait minimises risks [to frogs & lizards]”