Uselessness of 1080

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
7 Landcare: Ataria “DoC and the AHB invited ERMA to decide whether or not there were grounds for reassessment..they proposed that significant new research data..information relating to the significant increase in the quantity of 1080 used, and continued public concern..justified a reassessment”
332 1 Agency App. B “An important characteristic of 1080 poisoning is there a relatively stable, symptomless latency period before the relatively rapid onset of serious toxic signs”
392 1 Agency App. C “observed variation in sensitivity [to 1080] with temperature may..be a reason for the variations in reported toxicity to various species [possum LD 50 16.8 mg/kg at 10.5°C and 41.2 mg/kg bw at 23.5°C; mice LD 50 2.6 mg/kg bw at 12.2°C and 12.8 mg/kg bw at 24°C and 4.5 mg/kg bw at 33°C; same effects for guinea pigs]]
393 1 Agency App. C “LD 50 [for possums, values range from] 0.47 mg/kg bw to >125 mg/kg bw”
472 4 Agency App. E “the expected number of baits deposited in a stream cannot be assessed from stream size or bait application rate”
487 5 Agency App. F “ongoing predation [during poisoning] managed by intensive trapping around nest trees”
487 7 Agency App. F “counts of chaffinches, eastern rosellas, mynas and tui..increased [in a poisoned area] relative to control site”
488 2 Agency App. F “RCTI dropped..to 4.4% [one month] post operation( June 2000) rising to 9.5% in February 2002..in non-treatment area, RCTI dropped to 11.5% in February 2002, with no significant differences between treatment and control by Feb 2002.”
499 2 Agency App. F “1080 operation..failed and killed virtually no possums; reasons unknown [during monitoring of kokako at Rotoehu 1994/5]”
503 2 Agency App. F “Continued presence of predators (rats, mice, cats, stoats) [on Rangitoto Island after 1080 cereal operation]..ongoing predation..less than expected bird population recoveries” (2004)
506 4 Agency App. F “multiple species pest control..may be required to provide protection from predation. Controlling any one pest species is likely to be inadequate”
507 1 Agency App. F “Stoats and ferrets [are the main predators of kaka, controlled by ground-based methods]”
507 2 Agency App. F “stoats [main predators of Mohua, linked with mouse irruptions]”
507 3 Agency App. F “Ship rats, stoats, possums [predators of Kereru]..ongoing predation noted after 1080 operation which achieved RTCI of 4.4% and rodent tracking index of 5% immediately after the operation..four years’ sustained ground control..including intensive trapping around nest trees..improved nesting for at least one season”
507 4 Agency App. F “Stoats, rats [main predators of Orange-fronted kakariki, only known to occur in 3 valleys in Canterbury]”
508 1 Agency App. F “Dogs, ferrets, rats, stoats, cats..pigs, mustelids, possums [predators of Brown kiwi]”
508 2 Agency App. F “Ship rats/possums, harrier hawks..mustelids [predators of NI Kokako]..sustained pest control [was considered to have increased numbers of kokako] at 3 sites”
508 3 Agency App. F “Cats and possibly rats [predators of dotterel]..intensive management [required]”
509 2 Agency App. F “increased abundance of tui and silvereyes [on Rangitoto Island 8-9 years after eradication of possums and wallabies]..the abundance of insectivorous and seed-eating birds did not increase [possibly because of] the ongoing presence of ship rats, stoats and cats”
510 1 Agency App. F “Numbers of kaka, kereru and brown creeper increased [with increasing number of years of possum colonisation from 10-30 years] despite reliance of kaka and kereru on possum-preferred species”
526 1 Agency App. F “Mahoe [trees] showed significant improvement within a year of possum control even when possum indices relatively high”
526 2 Agency App. F “Significant benefits [of aerial possum control on Kohekohe trees] at 3 locations but not at 2 others”
526 3 Agency App. F “Poor possum kill (RTC 10%)..but significant improvement in foliage cover [of Kohekohe trees]..in 2 years, with decline in next year”
526 4 Agency App. F “At 3..locations where 5% RTC was almost achieved, foliage cover [of kohekohe trees]..showed little or only temporary improvement”
526 5 Agency App. F “significant increase in foliage cover [of Kohekohe trees] two years’ post control, decline to pre-control levels in third year”
526 6 Agency App. F “aerial 1080 slowed but didn’t halt decline [in Kamahi trees] despite RTC<5%”
526 7 Agency App. F “improvement [in Kamahi trees] observed for first 2 years, then dropped to pre-control levels”
526 8 Agency App. F “no significant improvement [in Northern Rata after 1080 operation] but issues with adequacy of the Rata View monitoring method”
527 3 Agency App. F “[Mahoe]..gain followed by decline and then improvement (environmental factors..and/or observer differences) [possible causes]”
527 5 Agency App. F “Initial increases of foliage cover..after 1996 treatment, then declined between 1997 and 2000, mortality also increased”
527 6 Agency App. F “[Landsborough Valley..40 years of possum presence] fuchsia and wineberry in good condition”
528 3 Agency App. F “Mistletoes are preferentially browsed by possums..possum densities need to be maintained below 3% RTCI to ensure [their] survival”
532 1 Agency App. F “Reasons for lower than anticipated kill rates can include: bait shyness/aversion as a result of a prior sub-lethal [dose], ingestion of a less than lethal dose, poor masking of the smell of 1080, less than optimal toxic loading”
532 2 Agency App. F “The recovery of ship rat populations to pre-control levels within 2-5 months of a 1080 control operation has been noted by several authors”
532 3 Agency App. F “Mouse populations.. are reported to increase rapidly 3-6 months after reductions in ship rat numbers, peaking after approximately 9 months before declining to pre-poisoning levels”
533 2 Agency App. F “repeated use of 1080 [for rats results in] learned aversion or bait shyness”
533 4 Agency App. F “the anticipated benefits of possum and rodent control may result in unforeseen impacts on highly valued species through prey switching, [eg] decreased rodent numbers..leading to increased stoat predation on birds”
534 3 Agency App. F “A kill rate of [>90% to 50% rabbits] was achieved [from an aerial drop of carrot 1080]”
534 5 Agency App. F “best practice guidelines indicate that treated oats are..particularly unreliable when aerially applied..The Otago Regional Council indicated that it used more than..4 tonnes of oats in 2006 [and 500 tonnes of carrot]”
535 1 Agency App. F “Some rabbit populations in south-western Australia appear to be developing resistance to 1080 due to an over-reliance on a single control method”
535 2 Agency App. F “Resistance of rats and house flies to 1080 has also been reported”
536 2 Agency App. F “Two aerial [1080]operations [for wallabies] resulted in less than 10% to 70% kills”
540 1 Agency App. G “The Agency notes the applicants have provided little factual support to demonstrate efficacy of aerial compared with ground application of 1080 as it relates to possums and Tb control”
542 1 Agency App. G “The abundance of ferrets caught did not differ before and after the start of possum control operations”
549 1 Agency App. G “Tb infection persisted at Hohotaka throughout 5 years of possum control..persistence of the infection [was considered likely to be a] consequence of..little or no effective control after the initial intensive control”
580 3 Agency App. J: Cullen “The Application..fails to demonstrate evidence or understanding of economic research on use of 1080, pest control or Tb..this section of the application is unsophisticated, uses crude approaches to estimate even the largest benefits and costs associated with the use of 1080, lacks awareness of many pertinent economic research techniques, seems unaware of almost all relevant economic research”
734 4 Agency App. N “The RTCI values..were 18.6..pre- and 5.6..post-operation [in a trial where bird repellent was used]; and 11.8..pre- and 9.7..[post-operation, where no repellent was used]” Post operative monitoring was delayed [for 4 months]..and may have impacted on the RTCI”
747 3 Agency App. N “Kereru..on-going predation of kereru nests [after 1080 carrot operation, 2000]”
747 5 Agency App. N “Whitehead..dead birds found; lives in forests regularly treated with 1080”
748 7 Agency App. N “there have been instances where the use of 1080 has not been successful in adequately managing the risks of predation”
748 8 Agency App. N “Research is also in progress to further address the complexities of multiple-pest species management”
762 1 Agency App. O “The applicant estimates areas of land that would not be treated under a cyanide/trapping scenario..but there is too little justification in the application for the Agency to evaluate this analysis”
777 1 Agency App. O “aerial 1080..year 1 before treatment: 10.2..year 2 before treatment: 7..year 4: 5.7 ..[compared to control, no treatment] year 1: 16.4..year 4: 5.7” (assume figures are RTCI)
779 1 Agency App. O “achieving a target possum density of 2 possums/ha, may need treatment with Feratox every 2 years whereas aerial treatment would achieve [this] if made every 3 years”
799 2 Agency App. Q “The Agency considers that discussion with industry is required to develop a process for ensuring such changes in risk profile [from ageing baits] are appropriately assessed”
852 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “As a landowner..I have noticed an almost complete disappearance of all living fauna after each 1080 drop. The possums, rabbits and rats are the first to recover, the birds have still not recovered.”
874 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “New information on 1080 Maximum Acceptable Value in water will soon be available; defer decision to avoid having to re-visit the 1080 protocols” (Ministry of Health)
914 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “We strongly support continued use of unscreened 1080 carrot baits in areas with no native birds or other issues. The cost of screening is an extra burden on landowners” (Maniototo Pest Management Ltd)
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning occupiers..it is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
15 1 Applicants’ references “the Rabbit Destruction Council..suggested arsenic as a substitute for [1080 due to the danger to] farmers’ dogs” (Bell, 1972)
41 1 Applicants’ references “[1080] is an extremely effective systemic pesticide whether applied to the leaves or the roots of the broad bean. It..may prove to be too generally toxic or persistent for practical use” (David & Gardiner, 1951)
84 1 Applicants’ references “A significant proportion of brushtail possums..survive pest control operations using [1080]..bait needs to..be eaten in amounts lethal to all possums” (Henderson et al., 1999)
84 2 Applicants’ references “Genetic polymorphisms caused some [possums] to be much more susceptible to 1080” (Henderson et al., 1999)
85 3 Applicants’ references “7-11%..of ferrets on one site and 8-15%..of ferrets at the other site apparently died of secondary 1080 poisoning [after aerial 1080 poisoning]..while we have evidence that secondary poisoning of cats does occur we monitored insufficient numbers..to reliably estimate mortality rates” (Heyward & Norbury, 1999)
93 2 Applicants’ references “Ecological consequences derive from both mammal population reduction..and..using toxins..Scientists [in NZ] have not examined the net ecological outcomes..key conservation legislation demands that [managers] do so” (Innes & Barker, 1999)
119 1 Applicants’ references “The sensitivity of a species to 1080 poison is difficult to predict from toxicity data from other, closely related species” (McIlroy, 1986)
123 3 Applicants’ references “Comparison of the Whitecliffs data with that of other lowland podocarp/broadleaf forests over one year, shows that 1080 has a severe impact on many other invertebrates. At Whitecliffs, insect larvae, comprising coleoptera, hymenoptera, diptera and lepidoptera dropped dramatically from July through to October, then stabilised for the rest of the year at the crash level. Insect larvae in other forests followed the normal pattern of continual rise from July until the onset of the following winter” (Meads, 1994)
131 2 Applicants’ references “two low-density quadrats recorded kill rates of <70% [of rabbits, poisoned with 1080 carrot]” (Moller et al., 1997)
133 2 Applicants’ references “Both [aerial 1080 and hunting] achieved kills of 80%. Patchy distribution with aerial drop; hunters made profit for half the total kill by averaging 8.2 possum skins/hr (selling skins)” (Morgan & Warburton, 1987)
133 1 Applicants’ references “failure to encounter bait remains a likely reason for possums surviving aerial poisoning” ( Morgan et al., 1986)
133 3 Applicants’ references “Toxic [1080] carrot baits were rejected by 27.5% of possums” (Morgan, 1990)
133 4 Applicants’ references “A small proportion of a population may still not be targeted because of individual dislike of bait or failure to encounter baits because animals stayed in the forest canopy [during aerial operations for possums]” (Morgan , 1994)
135 1 Applicants’ references “Possums..[n=131] were offered sublethal baits followed by lethal baits 2 days later..most possums became bait shy..most retested after 3 months..were still shy” (Morgan et al., 1996)
137 2 Applicants’ references “Trapping and poisoning only provide short-term solutions to the possum problem and often involve methods that involve suffering. [Many of the] Intrusive experiments connected with these methods..do not attain the welfare standards required by members of the public” (Morris & Weaver, 2003)
138 1 Applicants’ references “Development of aversions..in frequently poisoned possum..populations is becoming increasingly detrimental to the efficacy of pest control operations in New Zealand” (Moss et al., 1998)
146 1 Applicants’ references “[wild possums] from areas previously exposed to a 1080 control-operation avoided 1080 baits” (O’Connor et al., 1999)
158 1 Applicants’ references “Circadian rhythms..have major influence on  susceptibility [of possums to 1080]..loss of appetite..[is] induced by sub-lethal doses..smell and taste aversion diminishes bait-eating when the toxic load is high” (Peters & Fredric, 1983)
164 3 Applicants’ references “A reduction in possum and rat densities in the non-treatment area (and increase in densities in the [1080] treatment area) meant that during the second nesting season after the poison operation, possum and rat densities were similar in the two study areas” (Powlesland et al., 2003)
167 1 Applicants’ references “three rabbit populations [in Australia] repeatedly exposed to 1080 are becoming resistant to it. By comparing results from a similar study in 1979,they found that more than double the amount of poison is now needed to kill the same number of animals” (Randerson, 2002)
198 1 Applicants’ references “Compared with aerial treatment, the amount of [1080 used in bait stations] was reduced by more than 90%” (Thomas, 1994)
202 2 Applicants’ references “genetic differences between populations may have important implications for the control of possums, because Tasmanian possums have a greater resistance than mainland southeastern Australian possums to 1080” (Triggs & Green, 1989)
208 1 Applicants’ references “These findings suggest that genetic resistance to 1080 is developing in at least some populations of Australian rabbits” (Twigg et al., 2002)
211 1 Applicants’ references “Kill rates estimated after aerial [1080 cereal operations to control possums] varied from 61-100% in 48 operations..both temperature and latitude contributed significantly to a regression model for predicting..kill rates” (Veltman & Pinder, 2001)
8 1 Submitter 9142 “High prevalence of Tb in ferrets has been observed even when possum numbers are naturally low, or when possum control has already reduced populations, or when wildlife surveys have failed to find infection in possums” (Ragg & Byrom review)
15 1 Committee Decision “Grounds for reassessment..[included]..a significant increase in the amount of 1080 being used and planned for use”
40 2 Committee Decision “The Committee heard that aerial 1080 application is a necessary tool to treat large areas effectively”
40 5 Committee Decision “The Committee notes that 1080 is the only available vertebrate pest control agent able to control multiple pest species”
61 6 Committee Decision “The applicants explained that the lack of a dawn chorus is not attributable to 1080 so much as..ongoing predation”
72 1 Committee Decision “It is possible contaminated meat could be taken from wild animals due to the..latency period”
91 1 Committee Decision “there are a number of research gaps on the effects of 1080 in relation to its aerial application”
112 2 Committee Decision “The Committee accepts Doc’s view provided at the hearings that it is appropriate to leave the [maximum rate to be applied aerially, 30g 1080/ha] at its current level..to allow..simultaneous multi-species pest control..[and] double-sowing”
133 4 Committee Decision “short-term benefits to species and ecosystems extend for a number of years after each individual operation”
133 5 Committee Decision “the ongoing availability of formulated substances containing 1080 is essential for the foreseeable future”