Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
323 1 Agency App. B “An unexpected finding was that the serum of control rats contained..fluorocitrate [possibly from]..cross contamination”
325 1 Agency App. B “1080 passes relatively freely through membranes and into cells..distribution..across membranes may be facilitated by transport mechanisms for acetate”
325 2 Agency App. B “fluoroacetae is readily distributed around the body, between vascular compartments and within tissues”
325 3 Agency App. B “Excretion of unchanged 1080 in urine was reported to be important in a range of animals”
369 3 Agency App. C “The presence of blowfly..maggots increased the rate of loss of 1080 under experimental conditions”
370 4 Agency App. C “following a flood [2 months after 1080 drop] 3 carcasses were washed down-river well beyond the boundaries of the operational area [6 km..7 mg/kg; 15 km..6mg/kg; 50 km..<LOD] 1080 measured in the stomach contents..another possum and a stag carcass were found [after 3 months] following another larger flood..40 km..stag 0.5 mg/kg, 50 km..possum 1.7mg/kg”
376 1 Agency App. C “At bore 2 [13 m downstream from a landfill where 12, 000 kg toxic bait was disposed of] 1 μg/L [1080 was found in groundwater 6 months later]”
383 3 Agency App. C “systematic translocation of 1080 was demonstrated in a number of studies investigating..1080 as an..insecticide..e.g. In broad bean plants in soil..and sunflowers grown in sand”
385 4 Agency App. C “results [from a small study on possum urine] indicated a possible 15% reduction in nitrate production compared with control soils..due to the very small sample size (one replicate of one treatment) the differences could not be compared statistically”
396 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for rabbits after single oral dose of 1080] 3.0-44.3 hours”
408 2 Agency App. C “time for a dove to recover after dosing with 1080, up to] 168 hours”
416 3 Agency App. C “Measured residues in flies in casual contact with baits were 31 and 33 mg/kg and in close contact were 26 and 91 mg/kg”
422 1 Agency App. C “Some ‘house’ bees died several hours after the start of the trial, having received toxic bait from the foragers”
422 2 Agency App. C “A delayed action was observed (2 hours after feeding) with vigorous shaking, inability to hold onto comb, and death [in bees accessing 1080 jam baits]”
423 3 Agency App. C “5.51 mg/kg ants [one day after exposure to 0.03% 1080 in sucrose] with rapid decline in week following exposure but still measurable after 7 days (0.27 mg/kg ants)”
425 2 Agency App. C “Most exposed [native] cockroaches died during the 14 day period [after being fed 0.08% 1080 cereal bait]”
447 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “It was hypothesised that this [finding 1080 in water samples after an aerial operation] was due to contamination, as control samples also tested positive”
447 5 Agency App. C: Fisk “One of the positive [water samples for 1080] was collected before aerial dosing began”
454 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] if so [possible adaptation of plants and micro-organisms to 1080 has occurred due to its presence from human and plant sources] adaptation must be quite widespread”
467 3 Agency App. E “Limited information is available on dust drift and it is not known how representative this information is”
475 1 Agency App. E “There is little, if any, current information on the proportion of baits that may end up lodged in the forest canopy where they may be consumed by birds and other non-target..species.”
475 2 Agency App. E “15% of [carrot] bait more than 5 mm in size caught in [the] canopy and dropped to the ground 10 days after the drop”
475 3 Agency App. E “Three aerial operations using cereal baits were monitored for dust drift in 1997 and 1998..The maximum deposition of 1080 falling in dust [from cereal bait] was 25.2 μg/m²..residues in dust inside all treatment areas were significantly greater than outside at day 1, but not at day 5”
475 5 Agency App. E “The main conclusion that can be drawn..is that dust drift can occur over a considerable distance off-site (at least 1 km)”
475 6 Agency App. E “The Agency is not aware of any other studies reporting on dust drift from aerial application of 1080..there is insufficient information to know whether other bait types or delivery buckets would create more or less dust”
477 2 Agency App. E “[1080 concentration mg/kg in leaf litter] 0.023 at day 5 inside treatment area”
510 5 Agency App. F “Dust drift from the application of the baits was observed to contaminate the control site”
513 5 Agency App. F “Invertebrates from 21 orders..were caught in sticky traps in the [tree] canopy, of which 44 individuals were confirmed as having ingested [non-toxic cereal bait fragments lodged in the tree canopy]
516 1 Agency App. F “0.01 mg/kg [1080] in one of four [leaf litter] samples collected on day of application”
516 3 Agency App. F “most common [invertebrates on cereal 1080 baits]..ants” (communal insects that may transfer 1080 to other ants, as seen between bees)
517 3 Agency App. F “up to 1.6 mg/kg [1080] in [leaf litter samples after hand-broadcast of cereal baits] on day of treatment and 7 days after, including from control plots. Plots too far apart to be contaminated accidentally. Reason potentially redistribution by animal movement”
694 1 Agency App. M “When the treatment area has involved the catchment for a public water supply..the intake is closed until a negative analysis has been confirmed”
696 1 Agency App. M “standard controls will apply to address high risks, such as: No loaded aircraft will fly over reservoir lakes or feeding streams..intake for..public water supply will be disconnected from any streams arising in the treated area..any incident involving accidental distribution outside the drop zone will be notified (ignores effects of dust, floods and that streams arise from small tributaries)
700 2 Agency App. M “The Agency understands that carcasses can reach waterways particularly after significant rain events and agrees there are some aspects which make this a higher risk in relation to drinking water contamination. In particular: a single carcass could [contain] a number of baits [and] the drinking water source may have already been declared free of contamination”
747 7 Agency App. N “Australasian harrier..Low priority [for research] – few reports of dead birds; widespread species not in decline [situation in 1997]”
747 9 Agency App. N “Grey warbler.. Fantail..few found dead since carrot bait screened..widespread, disperses readily..no measurable impacts based on 5-minute bird counts”
798 1 Agency App. Q “a review of sowing bucket design and spread quality is in progress”
799 1 Agency App. Q “leaching from baits may have a greater effect on sub-optimal kill rates than loss of palatability”
898 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “A trapper in our area has found no lesions on any possums he has trapped. Other species than possums can spread Tb, and our numbers of pigs with Tb are increasing”
904 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “many of our export markets have bovine Tb but they do not have widespread 1080 use..My concern is that 1080 could be used as a powerful argument against our agricultural produce”
4 1 Applicants’ references “[1080 at sublethal doses [had] some effect on adults developing from larvae that had eaten the faeces of fleas that contained poisoned blood” (Alekseev et al, 1971)
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning occupiers..it is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
39 1 Applicants’ references “[1080] was translocated to the shoot with little accumulation in the root [in Helianths annus plants]” (Cooke, 1976)
54 2 Applicants’ references “[urine samples from rats] dosed with 0.25 mg/kg/day..contained 0.06 g/mL” (Eason et al., 2000)
123 1 Applicants’ references “The significant drop in insect numbers after heavy rain suggests strongly that the control plots had become contaminated” (Meads, 1994)
123 2 Applicants’ references “1080 adsorbs to cellulosic leaf litter, and persists in the litter for at least 3 months” (Meads, 1994)
131 3 Applicants’ references “Nine per cent of [rabbit] carcasses had been partially eaten by predators, suggesting a potential for predators to be killed during rabbit control operations” (Moller et al., 1997)
142 1 Applicants’ references “At least 9 invertebrate orders are prone to 1080 poisoning. Invertebrates have been observed eating baits..their habitats are contaminated by residues leaching from baits, and from animal by-products and carcasses..1080 should not be used where susceptible invertebrate species or rare insectivores are found” (Notman, 1989)
145 1 Applicants’ references “Most pigs vomited repeatedly after 1080 intoxication..typical levels of 1080 in vomitus would be hazardous to a number of nontarget species” (O’Brien et al., 1986)
149 2 Applicants’ references “The urine [applied to soil] from possums that had received a lethal dose of 1080 caused a 15% reduction in substrate-induced nitrogen production” (O’Halloran et al., 2003)
154 1 Applicants’ references “The amount of 1080 used per ha is..less than 15g..and if any..is not degraded because of low biological activity (e.g. at low temperature) it will be diluted by soil water and streamwater to very low concentrations” (Parfitt et al., 1994)
161 1 Applicants’ references “Low concentrations of 1080 were found in the insects [tested after an aerial cereal 1080 drop in 1990]” (Pierce & Montgomery, 1992)
178 1 Applicants’ references “In the subacutely and chronically intoxicated [with 1080] animals the multifocal myocardial lesions were more widespread” (Schultz et al., 1992)
223 1 Applicants’ references “A maximum concentration of 25.2 μg 1080 mˉ² was detected in [cereal] bait dust..within the control zone..lower concentrations were found outside treatment areas..there were detectable short-term 1080 residues in water, plant, leaf litter and soil samples after 2 of the 3 baiting operations” (Wright et al., 2002)
13 1 Submitter 9143 “Observation on the day of the poison operation showed that the fine particles and dust were blown across the forest canopy from the helicpter bait bucket” (Meads report)
13 2 Submitter 9143 “181 mm of rain fell in the second fortnight after the poison operation. Thus an influx of 1080 may have washed from the tree tops to the ground” (Meads Report)
57 3 Committee Decision “rapid dilution of 1080 would occur within a large body of water”
58 2 Committee Decision “the baits cover only a small proportion of the total treatment area and..while 1080 will leach from baits during rain, any effect will be highly localised and will not persist over time”
71 1 Committee Decision “the applicants..clarified that the breakdown of 1080 in the aquatic environment would be better described as dilution”
87 1 Committee Decision “Contamination of farmed meat and dairy produce is unlikely to occur as livestock are excluded from treatment areas and feral deer meat for human consumption is [sourced from] 1080-free areas”
126 2 Committee Decision “If a major spill into a waterway occurred, the spread may be uncontrollable”
128 3 Committee Decision “The risk [to Maori values and health]..is not subject to uncontrollable spread”
136 3 Committee Decision “The health hazard [1080 exposure identified by high levels of 1080 in urine] only applies to individual workers and is not unrestricted with respect to time nor does it spread in scope outside the immediate area of operation”
153 2 Committee Decision “Any equipment used to handle 1080 must retain and/or dispense the substance..without leakage”