Residues

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
351 2 Agency App. C “1080 residues are persistent in animal carcasses for prolonged periods in winter conditions”
354 2 Agency App. C “[after 0.1 mg/L 1080 added to aquaria with plants and invertebrates, amount and source not specified]..residues were detected in the plants reaching a maximum of 0.051 mg/kg after one hour [with a 70% decline in 1080 in the water after 24 hours]”
359 7 Agency App. C “residues [in crayfish and eels] decline significantly over a short period of time (8-9 days)”
363 1 Agency App. C “1080..measured in 5 of 8 eels which consumed muscle tissue..[was] 0.003-0.32mg/kg ..9 days after the last feed..low residues were measured in 1 of the 3 eels which had consumed contaminated gut”
363 2 Agency App. C “Crayfish were observed..consuming the baits..there were no mortalities [in 8 days..highest residues were] 3.3 mg/kg in viscera and 5mg/kg in tail muscle..7.1 mg/kg total concentration [viscera & muscle]was measured in a larger bodied crayfish 4 days after exposure”
363 3 Agency App. C “Concentrations in muscle decreased significantly  between days 4 and 8 (from mean ~1.2 mg/kg to ~0.2 mg/kg, data presented graphically only)”
369 2 Agency App. C “There is limited information available on the degradation of 1080 in animal carcasses..It is clear that 1080 residues remain in the guts of dead animals for prolonged periods (at least 75 days under cool winter conditions..) and only degrade slowly”
371 1 Agency App. C “concentrations [of 1080 in rabbit carcasses]..were highly variable..the apparent increase in concentration from that at the time of death..may be due to..dehydration”
387 2 Agency App. C “residues in snails [after 28 days exposure to 1080 in soil] 1.9mg/kg-61 mg/kg”
400 3 Agency App. C “residues of 1080 were substantially eliminated with 24 hours of dosing [of mallard ducks]” (no data given)
415 5 Agency App. C “Control solutions..had a measured concentration of 0.2 mg/kg..residues were..measured in the control frogs”
416 3 Agency App. C “Measured residues in flies in casual contact with baits were 31 and 33 mg/kg and in close contact were 26 and 91 mg/kg”
424 2 Agency App. C “0.033 mg/kg at 240 hours [residues in tree weta after dosing with 15 mg/kg 1080]”
475 3 Agency App. E “Three aerial operations using cereal baits were monitored for dust drift in 1997 and 1998..The maximum deposition of 1080 falling in dust [from cereal bait] was 25.2 μg/m²..residues in dust inside all treatment areas were significantly greater than outside at day 1, but not at day 5”
476 1 Agency App. E “of 118 samples (of soil) taken, 6 had 1080 residues..at day 1 (Whitecliffs) and day 5 (Titirangi) [after cereal operations]”
476 2 Agency App. E “Trace levels (of 1080) were found in 11 plant samples [after 1080 cereal operations at Whitecliffs and Titirangi]..the maximum measured was 0.014 mg/kg..on day 1..it is unknown whether the residues in plants resulted from dust deposition or uptake from the soil, the authors attributed them to dust.”
490 5 Agency App. F “Concentrations of 1080 in muscle tissue of each [tomtit, after aerial carrot operation] 1.9, 1.5 and 1.3 mg/kg”
503 5 Agency App. F “One dead [morepork] found [after screened carrot operation]; 1080 residues”
513 2 Agency App. F “Residues [of 1080 in cave weta collected from cereal baits, on nights 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 after the operation, respectively] were 32, 53, 53, 130 and 60 mg/kg..samples of other invertebrates [on nights 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 respectively were 22, 46, 24 and 14 mg/kg]”
513 3 Agency App. F ” [1080 residues in a pooled sample of] invertebrates collected from pitfall traps during the 10-day collection period [after a 1080 cereal drop] contained 0.8mg 1080/kg..spiders collected from baits..and pitfall traps contained 14 mg 1080/kg”
534 1 Agency App. F “[in a ground- based 1080 operation] all radio-tagged predators (6 feral cats, 1 stoat, 1 ferret) died of secondary poisoning..all dead animals contained 1080 residues..gut contents indicated consumption of poisoned rodents or..possum carcasses..secondary poisoning of ferrets and cats scavenging poisoned rabbit carcasses has also been observed”
560 1 Agency App. H “The most relevant information on 1080 residues in meat..was Eason et al., (1994).The study established the half-lives of 1080 in [3] sheep..the half-life in sheep was..substantially longer than in goats”
561 1 Agency App. H “No information was available to the Agency relating to residue of 1080 in milk from..cows..however one study [on ewe milk] has been reported..the Agency did not have access to the original report [by Eason]”
562 1 Agency App. H “The Agency did not find data on tissue residues [of 1080] in species which would be termed the main human meat sources, such as cattle, pigs, and deer”
563 1 Agency App. H There are no data for deer or pig[s] which may also be poisoned and then taken, but the assumption is that the residues in sheep give an indication”
563 2 Agency App. H “Possums..have high LD 50 values, so..it is likely that possums are able to sustain higher residue levels without lethality”
563 3 Agency App. H “The Agency contends that consideration of fluorocitrate or of other metabolites [in meat] is not necessary and that consideration of the unchanged 1080 is what requires health risk assessment”
563 4 Agency App. H “Even in a fatally poisoned animal the latency period can be as long as 29 hours..for a sub-lethal dose, it must be possible for the animal to be asymptomatic, for a substantial period..it is theoretically possible for a person to obtain the animal during the latency period and consider [it] to be in good condition [for meat]”
565 1 Agency App. H “[possums for human consumption] must be supplied live to premises for processing, while other feral caught animals such as deer, chamois etc, can be shot and the carcasses brought in [NZFSA regulations]”
701 1 Agency App. M “The Agency identified 3 main scenarios that may give rise to meat containing 1080 residues. Farm animals..may accidentally get access to 1080..feral animals..taken by hunters may have been poisoned..or sub-lethally poisoned”
702 1 Agency App. M “If [an] animal, such as a deer, contained 1080 residues, [a] family could be exposed to residues on a regular basis until the contaminated meat from the single animal was consumed..[in which case] the dose rate is..for a 70kg adult..about 30 times the PDEfood [Permissible Daily Exposure in food]”
703 1 Agency App. M “Weaver, (2003) raised concern about..meat residues..due to his concern that developmental effects may occur via endocrine disruption”
703 2 Agency App. M “A conservative estimate is that milk from a contaminated animal could contain approximately 0.14 mg of 1080/litre. The application..suggests that milk residues are actually lower..but the Agency did not have the relevant information..The Agency expects that any potentially contaminated milk or products from it would be intercepted and destroyed”
704 1 Agency App. M “The Agency notes that the likelihood of a hunter taking game that has been poisoned with 1080 before the animal dies or completes excretion of the poison (which only takes about 48 hours) is remote”
705 1 Agency App. M “[In freshwater crayfish] tail muscle analysis gave ~ 1.5 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.25 mg/kg at Day 8, while for viscera analysis gave ~1.2 mg/kg at Day 1 and ~0.2 mg/kg at Day 8”
705 2 Agency App. M “If a child consumed [200g of contaminated koura]..an unacceptable risk level..might be possible”
706 1 Agency App. M “[calculations suggest] the risk from meat consumption for freshwater species may be higher than for terrestrial meat sources. The Agency considers this conclusion misleading. A prime aim of 1080 operations is to avoid deposition of baits into waterways” (not small ones though, where koura live)
706 1 Agency App. M “[calculations suggest] the risk from meat consumption for freshwater species may be higher than for terrestrial meat sources. The Agency considers this conclusion misleading. A prime aim of 1080 operations is to avoid deposition of baits into waterways”
706 2 Agency App. M “Broadleaf seedling residues 0.06 mg/kg 1080 at Day 10”
707 1 Agency App. M “Karamuramu leaf residues 0.0025 mg/kg at Day 14”
707 2 Agency App. M “The highest plant tissue level [of 4 plants] reported was Day 3 in rye grass..Possibly this sampling time is a bit long after exposure, but it has been used in the absence of other data to reflect possible residues”
708 1 Agency App. M “when exposed to 5 μg/l..in water..[Elodea] plants absorbed the 1080 from the solution to reach a maximum  concentration of 2.5 μg/kg before declining relatively slowly to below the limit of detection (2 μg/kg) at 24 hours”
708 2 Agency App. M “Considering the surface water analyses, the absorption [by Elodea canadensis] of 1080 from water containing 5 μg/l ..represents a relatively unlikely scenario”
709 1 Agency App. M “One honey sample was found with 15 ppb and this..declined to 3 ppb..after 59 days”
721 3 Agency App. N “Monitoring has indicated deaths of individual birds and modelling of exposure indicates that exposure to both bait fragments and to residues in bird’s food could be sufficient to cause effects”
723 11 Agency App. N “While invertebrates feeding on poisoned animal carcasses may be exposed to 1080 residues, the Agency has not assessed exposure from this source. Any effects are likely to be minimal”
726 1 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in aquatic plants] 0.005 mg/kg 1080 after 100 hours”
726 2 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in] pooled sample of invertebrates collected from cereal baits..57 mg/kg [max 130 mg/kg]”
727 1 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in cave weta] 130 mg/kg”
727 2 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in tree weta] 0.033 mg/kg at 240 hours”
727 3 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in broadleaf plants] 0.06 mg/kg at day 10 [1080 residues in karamuramu] 0.0025 mg/kg at Day 14”
727 4 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in possum stomach contents] 30.6 mg/kg at Day 25, 4.9 mg/kg at Day 75”
747 2 Agency App. N “Morepork..dead birds found after 1080 operations and tested positive for 1080 residues”
747 4 Agency App. N “Rifleman..dead birds found containing 1080 residues”
747 6 Agency App. N “Robin..dead birds found containing 1080 residues; population mortality 55% in one sample of marked birds”
748 1 Agency App. N “[Tomtit]..dead birds found wherever aerial 1080 operations occur; measured residues, population declines after 1080 carrot operations [situation in 1997]”
756 2 Agency App. N “Five dead deer..were located during a 9-day search of one sector of the [deer] repellent treated block. Analysis of muscle tissue for 1080 residues confirmed the cause of death”
756 3 Agency App. N “Analysis of muscle tissue for 1080 residues confirmed the cause of death [of 5 deer]..although the residue data have not been sighted by the Agency”
756 4 Agency App. N “The birds were sampled for 1080 residues, but as for the deer, the results were not appended to the report accessed by the Agency”
757 3 Agency App. N “Muscle residues [of dead wild deer] were..0.7-1.2 mg 1080 /kg tissue”
758 2 Agency App. N “Residues [in dead wild animals] ranged from 7.2-32 mg/kg in blackbirds; 1.4-5.8 mg/kg in chaffinch; 0.23-0.75 in tomtits..0.46 mg/kg in muscles samples [of a dead pig] and in deer..0.25-4.4 mg/kg”
904 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “many of our export markets have bovine Tb but they do not have widespread 1080 use..My concern is that 1080 could be used as a powerful argument against our agricultural produce”
905 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “1080 contamination of honey in late 1980s and early 1990s all but destroyed New Zealand’s exports of honey to Japan”
905 2 Agency App. T: Submissions “The Ministry for the Environment in 2001 assessed as over $500 million the loss of our “clean green” image” (NZ Deerstalkers’ Association, Hutt Valley)
906 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Reported poison residues brought about the temporary end of the multi-million dollar commercial wild animals meat recovery industry in 2002”
907 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Possum pet food meat exported to Japan rejected because of unfavourable publicity re NZ’s 1080 programme”
46 1 Applicants’ references “The ideal toxicant for possum control should be inexpensive, useable by farmers..humane..species-specific..not leave persistent residues..have a low risk of primary or secondary poisoning in non-target species..be supported by a comprehensive database..such an ideal pesticide..may never be identified” (Eason et al., 2000)
74 1 Applicants’ references “[rabbits were administered doses of 1080 to study] the persistence of 1080 in plasma, liver, kidney and muscle” (results only given for plasma) (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
75 1 Applicants’ references “Elevation of plasma F in [1080] lethally dosed [rabbits] was ..at least 3 x higher [than normal] and was the highest in animals which died early” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
75 2 Applicants’ references “In sub-lethally poisoned [rabbits] only muscle citrate was elevated” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
99 1 Applicants’ references “We were certainly surprised to find that fingerling bream and bass would survive in 370 ppm for an indefinite period” (King & Penfound, 1946)
110 1 Applicants’ references “The highest concentration of 1080 detected in the honey [in hives near a poisoned jam bait operation] was 15 ppb and..showed a gradual decay to 3 ppb after 59 days” (Lowe, 1994)
112 1 Applicants’ references “The detection of 1080 in the muscle of an eel 9 days after it last consumed possum gut tissue..suggests that the..excretion of sublethal doses..may be slower than in mammals and birds..an in-depth study should be undertaken..other scavenging aquatic fauna..also..should be considered” (Lyver et al., 2004)
115 1 Applicants’ references “In the American cockroach and mouse..fluoroacetate..poisoning led to large citrate concentrations in the body” Matsumura & O’Brien, 1963)
136 3 Applicants’ references “If livestock become exposed to 1080 bait, a minimum withholding period of 5-10 days is advised” (Morgan & Eason, 2002)
142 1 Applicants’ references “At least 9 invertebrate orders are prone to 1080 poisoning. Invertebrates have been observed eating baits..their habitats are contaminated by residues leaching from baits, and from animal by-products and carcasses..1080 should not be used where susceptible invertebrate species or rare insectivores are found” (Notman, 1989)
149 3 Applicants’ references “earthworm tissue residues at the conclusion of the experiment [28 days of exposure to soil initially dosed with 1080] were either close to, or below, the analytical..limit of detection (0.01 mg/kg)” (O’ Halloran et al., 2003)
161 1 Applicants’ references “Low concentrations of 1080 were found in the insects [tested after an aerial cereal 1080 drop in 1990]” (Pierce & Montgomery, 1992)
173 1 Applicants’ references “Caged wild rabbits..were [repeatedly] fed sublethal doses of..1080..Results show that in some circumstances ‘1080’ can accumulate and that its elimination from the rabbit is a slow process” (Rowley, 1963)
189 1 Applicants’ references “The rainfall pattern is an important factor in the weathering of poisoned rabbit baits but it is not possible to lay down specific rules about the time domestic stock should be kept off recently poisoned areas” (Staples, 1968)
192 2 Applicants’ references “The fact that detritus was also present in the cages suggested that pollard baits may [be a] more favourable food item to crayfish than detritus” (Suren & Bonnet, 2004)
193 1 Applicants’ references “The highest total concentration of 1080 found within a particular crayfish (7.7 mg kg -1) suggested that c. 80% of a pollard bait had been consumed by this individual..it is, however..possible that crayfish in natural streams would encounter more than one..bait..and consume them” (Suren & Bonnet, 2004)
194 1 Applicants’ references “There was no tissue specific accumulation of [1080, up to 4 hours after intravenous injection, in mice]..however bone accumulation of [fluoride] was significant” (Sykes et al., 1987)
217 1 Applicants’ references “Numerous cases of suspect accidental poisoning of livestock with..1080..occur in NZ every year” (Wickstrom & Eason, 1997)
223 1 Applicants’ references “A maximum concentration of 25.2 μg 1080 mˉ² was detected in [cereal] bait dust..within the control zone..lower concentrations were found outside treatment areas..there were detectable short-term 1080 residues in water, plant, leaf litter and soil samples after 2 of the 3 baiting operations” (Wright et al., 2002)
14 4 Committee Decision “In wet environments 1080 residues disappear in one to four weeks”
59 3 Committee Decision “water samples rarely contain measurable 1080 residues”
63 4 Committee Decision “sub-lethally poisoned invertebrates are able to metabolise and excrete 1080 and so residues remain in their tissues for a short time only”
64 1 Committee Decision “trials exposing native frogs to 1080 residues in water and to cereal bait containing 1080 were inconclusive due..to the small numbers of animals used and their tendency to hide..[reflecting] the difficulties associated with testing many native species”
65 1 Committee Decision “1080 residues in the carcasses of poisoned possums may be very slow break down”
71 2 Committee Decision “[the applicants] stated that the important thing was that 1080 residue levels in surface water are usually too small to be detected”
72 2 Committee Decision “residue levels in feral animals are likely to be very low…signage and public notification controls address such issues”
72 3 Committee Decision “the potential health risk from consumption of contaminated wild freshwater food sources is..low”
73 1 Committee Decision “for contamination of watercress to be a concern, the 1080 would need to be in the water in greater concentration than is likely to occur”
85 1 Committee Decision “The Committee does not consider any adverse effects on the market economy arising from ground or aerial-based use of 1080 to be significant”
86 1 Committee Decision “livestock deaths from 1080 poison do occur”
89 3 Committee Decision “there is no evidence that the use of 1080 was responsible [for the collapse in trade of feral venison]”
888 1 Submitter “my..dog was killed 5 months after the [1080] drop”
201 2 Decision App.B “[impact on game meat industry]..Not assessed..current industry small, unlikely to be affected by use of 1080”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”