Breakdown Products

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
290 2 Agency App. A “Identify the composition and classify hazardous properties of the substance”
291 1 Agency App. A “identify all possible risks, costs and benefits”
327 2 Agency App. B “Metabolism of 1080 is of particular significance because it is the formation of fluorocitrate, which is necessary to produce the toxic effects”
328 1 Agency App. B “Metabolism by pathways other than the Kreb’s Cycle cannot be excluded”
328 4 Agency App. B “As would be expected a proportion of the fluoride release [from 1080 metabolism] is retained in bone”
329 2 Agency App. B “One metabolic product [of 1080] amino is possible that a fluorinated amino acid may be incorporated into proteins..The Agency considers [this finding] needs verification..Clark (1991) also refers to the interaction of 1080 metabolites on amino acid metabolism”
330 1 Agency App. B “It may indicate that a small amount of fluorocitrate is produced from dietary fluoride..but such a conclusion is not justified on the basis of a single, unconfirmed finding”
353 4 Agency App. C “In a study with the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis, formation..of fluorocitrate from 1080 in the water was observed..presumably micro-organisms present in the test system were able to..release fluorocitrate into the water column”
355 4 Agency App. C “The fluoride ion concentration was measured in the [aquatic] test systems..mean final concentration of 83 μg/L (assumed to be 17 DAT; not stated in the study). Fluoride ion concentration in the control was 1-2 μg/l”
356 5 Agency App. C “Peak fluorocitrate concentrations [in aquaria] were reached:…8 DAT ~1.6 mg/kg at the highest test concentration of 1080 [5mg 1080/L]”
360 2 Agency App. C “the Agency was not able to locate, any data on the aquatic toxicity of the metabolite fluorocitrate in water or soil”
368 5 Agency App. C “No determination of degradation products [in soil biodegradation test]”
436 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “Fluorocitrate peaked at [1.6 mg/L at]..8 days [in aquaria dosed with] 5 mg/L 1080”
17 1 Applicants’ references “Fluoride intoxication leads to sudden cardiac death” (Boink et al., 1994)
47 1 Applicants’ references “Ecological risk assessments also..require [studies of] the entry, distribution and biological effect and fate of chemicals to fully characterise and understand the potential adverse implications of contamination” (Eason & O’Halloran, 2002)
50 1 Applicants’ references “there is a need to more clearly understand how 1080 breaks down in water and to model any consequences of 1080 contamination in waterways” (Eason et al., 1994)
75 1 Applicants’ references “Elevation of plasma F in [1080] lethally dosed [rabbits] was least 3 x higher [than normal] and was the highest in animals which died early” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
75 2 Applicants’ references “In sub-lethally poisoned [rabbits] only muscle citrate was elevated” (Gooneratne et al., 1994)
102 1 Applicants’ references “[a report showed] enhanced accumulation of ionic fluoride in the bones of rats given [1080]” (Kostyniak et al., 1978)
115 1 Applicants’ references “In the American cockroach and mouse..fluoroacetate..poisoning led to large citrate concentrations in the body” Matsumura & O’Brien, 1963)
121 2 Applicants’ references “Levels of citrate in kidneys and livers in rats increased 6.8 and 1.7-fold respectively after dosing with [1080]” (Mead et al., 1985)
128 1 Applicants’ references “there was a sharp retardation of growth rate [in rats fed 20 ppm fluoroacetate]..there was increased storage of fluorine in the femuri when dietary fluoroacetate was fed” (Miller & Phillips, 1955)
177 1 Applicants’ references “1080 is also metabolised into amino acids, fatty acids and cholesterol” (Saito et al., 1966)
177 2 Applicants’ references “Conversion of fluoroacetic acid to amino acids in the mammal..[after poisoning live mice and homogenates of organs of several mammals] several amino acids were formed..pig amino acid..1 mg of this amino acid was purified and contained 9.3% fluorine” (Schaefer & Machleidt, 1971)
194 1 Applicants’ references “There was no tissue specific accumulation of [1080, up to 4 hours after intravenous injection, in mice]..however bone accumulation of [fluoride] was significant” (Sykes et al., 1987)
197 2 Applicants’ references “[isotopic labelling] reveals a complex mixture of urinary metabolites [of fluoroacetate] rats and mice” (Tecle & Casida, 1989)