Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
349 14 Agency App. C “monitoring information [on reproductive toxicity to birds] is limited by factors such as short pre-operational observation period, seasonal fluctuations”
349 13 Agency App. C “Data gaps..reproductive toxicity to birds”
351 5 Agency App. C “1080 is very toxic to vertebrates..reptiles and amphibians appear more tolerant than birds and mammals, but time to onset is slow and data on New Zealand species, which are taxonomically distinct, is sparse”
391 1 Agency App. C “in general, mammals are more sensitive to 1080 than birds..reptiles and amphibians are less sensitive than either”
400 1 Agency App. C “The Agency only had access to the results of the studies [detailed studies on birds] as presented in the open literature, and not to the full reports”
400 2 Agency App. C “Assessment..indicates that skeletal muscle damage may occur in birds exposed to 1080”
400 3 Agency App. C “residues of 1080 were substantially eliminated with 24 hours of dosing [of mallard ducks]” (no data given)
406 2 Agency App. C “Survivors [of weka given 1080, showed a range of symptoms including] loss of balance, threat..defence..increased respiration; circling..coma”
408 1 Agency App. C “[weka and pukeko] time to death 4-18 [hours]”
408 2 Agency App. C “time for a dove to recover after dosing with 1080, up to] 168 hours”
411 1 Agency App. C “[time to death for blackbirds dosed with 1080] 10.8-30.5 hours”
414 1 Agency App. C “The Agency has not been able to locate any data from standard tests on the reproductive toxicity of 1080 to birds”
475 1 Agency App. E “There is little, if any, current information on the proportion of baits that may end up lodged in the forest canopy where they may be consumed by birds and other non-target..species.”
479 1 Agency App. F “significant improvements in carrot bait preparation and application technology..have reduced the numbers of birds killed.”
479 3 Agency App. F “There is no evidence of significant adverse effects on populations of any non-target species as a direct result of exposure to 1080, with the exception of some historical cases where unscreened carrot was used at very high sowing rates.”
480 2 Agency App. F “Use of unscreened carrot, in rabbit control operations appears to disregard effects on non-native birds and other species.”
481 1 Agency App. F “The applicant did not specifically discuss effects on non-native species (other than target species) in the environmental effects register. Only a small number of reports note effects on introduced birds”
482 1 Agency App. F “Five-minute counts have been identified as not reliable for assessing population impacts after 1080 operations unless high mortality occurs..and not reliable for rarer species”
483 1 Agency App. F “Specific monitoring methods have been developed for robins [including] the time taken for a population to recover from impact”
484 1 Agency App. F “Deaths of..birds have been reported frequently after pest control operations, but generally do not give any indication of potential effects at a population level”
484 2 Agency App. F “Systematic searches for dead birds are not common practice”
484 3 Agency App. F “[the level of detail in the reports on] monitoring of bird highly many cases, the conclusions that can be drawn..are limited by lack of replication and/or lack of suitable control (untreated) blocks.”
484 4 Agency App. F “more refined monitoring techniques [are used] for birds at higher risk..[eg] radio-tracking and mark and recapture”
484 5 Agency App. F “in a series of 3 trials to evaluate the utility of screening the bait, all at a sowing rate of 40 kg/ha..177 dead birds were found (143 native)”
484 5 Agency App. F “One carrot operation in particular was reported to have had a significant impact on tomtits..and the brown creeper..the carrot bait..was unscreened and sown at 30 kg/ha”
484 7 Agency App. F “Reductions in sowing rates..the screening of carrot bait..and use of green die..have assisted in reducing impacts on birds”
485 2 Agency App. F “The Agency is unaware of information on the effects of 1080 operations on game birds”
485 5 Agency App. F “[the Otago Regional Council’s rationale for not screening and dense bait distribution]..native birds which could be deemed at risk, are not usually present in the type of country where rabbit control takes place.”
485 7 Agency App. F “Dead [moreporks] have been reported following 1080 operations”
486 1 Agency App. F “Harrier hawks have been observed feeding on..poisoned possums.. kea..[feed on] poisoned thar”
487 1 Agency App. F “Five-minute counts [used to monitor poisoning effects on birds]”
488 1 Agency App. F “Re-location of birds, banding..radiotransmitters attached to all kereru, female kaka and some male kaka..male kaka..marked with coloured leg [kereru] died in the control area [observations carried out for 2 weeks]”
489 1 Agency App. F “21 [kaka] radiotagged [for monitoring aerial 1080 operation]”
489 3 Agency App. F “Dead birds [after 1080 drop in Pureroa forest in 1994]..included 4 kereru, 2 blackbirds, 4 riflemen, 1 grey warbler and 7 tomtits..snow fell soon after the poison drop and may have contributed to the deaths”
489 4 Agency App. F “Four dead kea found..also 8 dead kea observed feeding on toxic carrot; kea may also have fed on poisoned..carcasses”
489 5 Agency App. F “Five-minute call counts [used to monitor kea after poisoning]”
489 6 Agency App. F “Banding of 15 male tomtits in treatment and control areas”
490 1 Agency App. F “Banded tomtits seen 14 before, 3 after [aerial 1080 carrot drop]” (2000)
490 2 Agency App. F “[rat] tunnel tracks 44% before, 0% in Sept/Oct [after aerial 1080 in August], rising to 7% by Feb [the next year]”
490 3 Agency App. F “banded [tomtits] after being accustomed to hand-feeding”
490 5 Agency App. F “Concentrations of 1080 in muscle tissue of each [tomtit, after aerial carrot operation] 1.9, 1.5 and 1.3 mg/kg”
490 4 Agency App. F “non-treatment control block..had been treated [the previous year]”
490 6 Agency App. F “Four of 5 nests in the treatment area were successful (one failed due to predation) compared with 4 of 6 nests in the control block”
490 7 Agency App. F “One year after operation: fewer tomtits seen in treatment area compared to before the operation” (2000)
491 1 Agency App. F “[tomtit density] declined in the later survey periods to below the pre-operation levels [after aerial carrot operation]” (2004)
491 2 Agency App. F “Non-treated control block”
491 3 Agency App. F “High mortality, three years for [tomtit] population to recover” (1981)
491 4 Agency App. F “Five-minute counts [used to monitor tomtits after poisoning]”
491 5 Agency App. F “Decreases in male tomtit numbers after [carrot] operations…estimates..47% at Kokomoka, 20% at Mohaka, 15% at Waimanoa” (2005)
492 1 Agency App. F “Twelve of 28 robins disappeared from the treatment area..most..within 3 days of the operation..3 banded [dead] birds contained 1080” (1999)
492 2 Agency App. F “monitoring of banded birds which would approach for food”
492 5 Agency App. F “Twelve of 22 robins disappeared from the treatment area” (1999)
494 1 Agency App. F “Five [riflemen] found dead after the [carrot] operation, all contained 1080” (1994)
494 2 Agency App. F “Five minute measurable impact on numbers [of riflemen] 2-8 weeks after the operations”
494 3 Agency App. F “two [fernbirds] banded”
494 4 Agency App. F “Nine [fernbirds] banded before the [cereal 1080] operation..5 birds relocated in the 2 weeks after the operation. The fate of the missing birds was unknown”
494 5 Agency App. F “5-minute counts..No detectable impacts on the numbers of [whiteheads] 2-8 weeks after the operations”
495 1 Agency App. F “Whiteheads still occasionally found dead after 1080 operations even with improvements in preparation of bait”
495 2 Agency App. F “Five-minute counts..60% decline in [Brown creeper bird] counts after the operation, returning to pre-operational levels one year later”
495 3 Agency App. F “Five-minute counts..were similar [for Brown Creeper birds] one year before and one year after..operations”
495 4 Agency App. F “five-minute counts [of Yellowhead] significant changes..immediately after the 1080 operation. Author noted deficiencies in the sampling”
495 5 Agency App. F “Silvereyes, fantails and grey warblers have been found dead after 1080 carrot operations”
496 1 Agency App. F “Five minute call counts [of Kakariki] detectable impact on number of counts”
496 2 Agency App. F “Seven [NI brown kiwi] radiotagged..two transmitters fell off soon after operation..3 of 4 radiotagged pairs were found nesting during the poisoning period, all 3 nests failed; 2 nests eggs disappeared; one abandoned; one infertile.”
497 1 Agency App. F “35 [NI brown kiwi] was found dead (killed by a predator)”
497 2 Agency App. F “Two radiotagged adult [NI brown kiwi]..survived at least six months after the operation” (as usual, no mention of taking off transmitters)
497 3 Agency App. F “Nine radiotagged [Great spotted kiwi] radiotag fell off..5 survived at least 5 months”
497 4 Agency App. F “Seven radiotagged [Great spotted kiwi]..survived at least 2 months”
498 1 Agency App. F “One pair [of NI kokako monitored during an aerial 1080 operation in 1990] not relocated, may have..died from poisoning”
498 2 Agency App. F “the proportion of (kokako) pairs which did not attempt to breed was estimated as 75% at the start of management..and decreased to 8%..attributed to male-male pairs in early stages of monitoring, with banded males pairing off with newly fledged females”
498 3 Agency App. F “Predation was confirmed as the primary cause of most nest failures [of NI kokako, in areas with aerial 1080 followed by ground control over many years]
499 4 Agency App. F “Blue duck known to be vulnerable to prey switching by mustelids and cats after large reductions in rodent numbers after 1080 application.”
500 1 Agency App. F “19 radiotagged [blue duck]..all survived at least 4 weeks after the operation”
500 2 Agency App. F “Five-minute call counts..before/after [aerial 1080 operation, native forest birds] differences may reflect changes in food availability with time, and..shifts in preferred habitat with season”
500 3 Agency App. F “call counts control”
501 2 Agency App. F “Five-minute call counts..before/after [aerial 1080 operation, introduced forest birds] differences may reflect changes in food availability with time, and..shifts in preferred habitat with season”
501 4 Agency App. F “dead birds found [after 1080 carrot poisoning, 3 operations 1996-7] thrush..dunnock..robin..tomtit..whitehead..rifleman..goldfinch..yellowhammer..grey warbler..silvereye”
502 1 Agency App. F “[approximate] numbers of dead birds found [after 1080 carrot poisoning]..35 with carrot>16mm..55 with unscreened carrot..85 with carrot <16mm”
503 1 Agency App. F “Call counts [monitored] in 1998 and 1999..increases [in tui and silvereye]..attributed to a heavy pohutukawa flowering”
503 2 Agency App. F “Continued presence of predators (rats, mice, cats, stoats) [on Rangitoto Island after 1080 cereal operation]..ongoing predation..less than expected bird population recoveries” (2004)
503 3 Agency App. F “Ten-minute call counts [of moreporks, used to monitor 1080 cereal operation]..Number of birds..declined in the control block [this was] attributed to a less experienced person counting”
503 4 Agency App. F “Six radiotagged [moreporks] found dead [after 1080 carrot operation] and tested positive for 1080”
503 5 Agency App. F “One dead [morepork] found [after screened carrot operation]; 1080 residues”
504 1 Agency App. F “Seven radio-tagged [moreporks]”
504 2 Agency App. F “Two dead [moreporks] handed in, a further 6 reported dead [after aerial cereal operation]”
504 3 Agency App. F “Five-minute call measurable effects [of 1080 carrot operation on weka] insufficient number..present to assess..impact”
504 4 Agency App. F “24 radio-tagged [weka, to monitor effects of aerial cereal operation]”
504 6 Agency App. F “Eight radiotagged [weka, to monitor cereal 1080 operation]”
504 5 Agency App. F “One radiotagged [weka] found dead and 1080 poisoning non-radio-tagged bird found sick, droppings contained 1080 but bird recovered [after aerial cereal operation]”
505 1 Agency App. F “Fifteen radio-tagged [weka]..5 birds found dead prior to the [aerial cereal] operation..4..probable stoat [re] located but not caught..1 found dead (predation) and 1 not re-located. Note: Western weka listed as being in serious decline”
506 1 Agency App. F “The Agency notes that there are indications that..possum RTCIs need to be below 5% to enable successful breeding of kereru..a target 1%..[has] been established for kokako..5% is acceptable, but more than 5% represents a failure”
506 2 Agency App. F “intensive possum and other predator management is needed to protect breeding kaka”
506 3 Agency App. F “robins can be readily trained to approach observers and are easily captured”
507 1 Agency App. F “Stoats and ferrets [are the main predators of kaka, controlled by ground-based methods]”
507 2 Agency App. F “stoats [main predators of Mohua, linked with mouse irruptions]”
507 3 Agency App. F “Ship rats, stoats, possums [predators of Kereru]..ongoing predation noted after 1080 operation which achieved RTCI of 4.4% and rodent tracking index of 5% immediately after the operation..four years’ sustained ground control..including intensive trapping around nest trees..improved nesting for at least one season”
507 4 Agency App. F “Stoats, rats [main predators of Orange-fronted kakariki, only known to occur in 3 valleys in Canterbury]”
508 1 Agency App. F “Dogs, ferrets, rats, stoats, cats..pigs, mustelids, possums [predators of Brown kiwi]”
508 4 Agency App. F “45% [of brown kiwi monitored by DoC] died in first 3 weeks of life”
508 2 Agency App. F “Ship rats/possums, harrier hawks..mustelids [predators of NI Kokako]..sustained pest control [was considered to have increased numbers of kokako] at 3 sites”
508 3 Agency App. F “Cats and possibly rats [predators of dotterel]..intensive management [required]”
509 1 Agency App. F “Animals that include large proportions of flowers, fruit and seed in their diets may benefit [from sustained control of possums and ungulates]..possums and rats may..affect food availability”
509 2 Agency App. F “increased abundance of tui and silvereyes [on Rangitoto Island 8-9 years after eradication of possums and wallabies]..the abundance of insectivorous and seed-eating birds did not increase [possibly because of] the ongoing presence of ship rats, stoats and cats”
509 3 Agency App. F “Additional seed produced [after browsing animals were removed from Rangitoto Island] may have led to increased seed consumption by rodents..[which] also consume large quantities of invertebrates, also reducing the resources available to birds”
510 1 Agency App. F “Numbers of kaka, kereru and brown creeper increased [with increasing number of years of possum colonisation from 10-30 years] despite reliance of kaka and kereru on possum-preferred species”
525 Agency App. F “Total carcasses found [after aerial cereal operation] 1 pig..53 deer..56 possums..16 blackbirds..1 chaffinch..1 grey warbler..2 tomtits”
533 4 Agency App. F “the anticipated benefits of possum and rodent control may result in unforeseen impacts on highly valued species through prey switching, [eg] decreased rodent numbers..leading to increased stoat predation on birds”
721 3 Agency App. N “Monitoring has indicated deaths of individual birds and modelling of exposure indicates that exposure to both bait fragments and to residues in bird’s food could be sufficient to cause effects”
721 4 Agency App. N “Risks [of 1080] to bird populations [are] dependent on..dispersal abilities..breeding strategies..and..abundance”
722 1 Agency App. N “Key bird species have been subject to increased monitoring and no direct population level impacts attributable to 1080 poisoning have been identified”
722 3 Agency App. N “Deaths of tomtits and robins have frequently been reported after aerial 1080 operations..but..are capable of wide dispersal and have a high reproductive capacity”
722 5 Agency App. N (no mention of possible effects on rare species of birds, or secondary poisoning of birds, in the Agency’s Exposure and Risk Assessment on non-target species)
722 4 Agency App. N “Improvements in bait quality/preparation..have contributed to fewer deaths of individual birds”
723 1 Agency App. N “Consideration needs to be given to ways to restrict fines in carrot bait.”
723 2 Agency App. N “Treated oats are not allowed due to high risk to non-target organisms. Consideration needs to be given to remove grain/oats as an acceptable bait..or to require greater evaluation of risks to non-targets before use”
723 3 Agency App. N “The Agency considers that further trials with bird repellent may be warranted given the problems with trials to date, that include lack of replication, issues with monitoring possum indices after the trials and less-than-toxic loading on the carrot”
729 7 Agency App. N “A summary of birds known to consume either carrot or cereal [22 native and 7 introduced species listed]”
730 1 Agency App. N “A number of birds species are known to have consumed cereal-based baits containing brodifacoum used during rat eradication operations and subsequently died, these include; little spotted kiwi, brown teal, spotless crake, kakariki, and pukeko”
734 1 Agency App. N “Analysis of the toxic carrot indicated a lower-than-target concentration of 0.072% 1080” (2005)
734 2 Agency App. N “Bird repellent was added at a nominal 0.2%..[then] measured at ~0.035% after baits had been sown (indicating less-than-adequate application of the repellent)” (2005)
734 4 Agency App. N “The RTCI values..were 18.6..pre- and [in a trial where bird repellent was used]; and 11.8..pre- and 9.7..[post-operation, where no repellent was used]” Post operative monitoring was delayed [for 4 months]..and may have impacted on the RTCI”
735 1 Agency App. N “The AHB..considered..that the repellent did not deter birds as effectively as they considered desirable and therefore are not considering the use of the bird repellent further.”
735 2 Agency App. N “Ingestion of sub-lethal doses may alter invertebrate behaviour resulting in abnormal daytime activity, and increased likelihood of ingestion by birds”
743 1 Agency App. N “The analysis indicates that a relatively small proportion of a bird’s daily food intake could deliver a lethal dose through secondary poisoning and consumption of very small pieces of bait could deliver a lethal dose”
743 2 Agency App. N “Populations of birds which are able to disperse over wide areas are more likely to be able to recolonise areas where numbers may have been reduced [by 1080]”
744 1 Agency App. N “Bellbird, Tui [among birds with good dispersal capacity for recovery after 1080 operations]”
744 2 Agency App. N “In theory, populations of birds with higher reproductive capacity are more likely to recover from an impact [of 1080] than those with a lower capacity, however a large number of other factors may also influence recovery”
745 1 Agency App. N “Bellbird, Tui [among birds with high reproductive capacity for recovery after 1080 operations]”
745 2 Agency App. N “Generally, further monitoring [of birds] was warranted when less definitive techniques (such as 5-minute call counts) had been used previously”
746 1 Agency App. N “the [bird] monitoring results available to the Agency at the time of this review are likely to be incomplete”
746 2 Agency App. N “North Island brown kiwi..43 radiotagged birds..Great spotted kiwi..15 radiotagged birds”
746 3 Agency App. N “Kaka..restricted distribution..will eat bait”
746 4 Agency App. N “Kaka..radiotagged and colour banded”
746 5 Agency App. N “Kea..will eat carrot bait”
746 12 Agency App. N “[Discredited method of 5-minute call counts used to assess impacts of aerial 1080 on birds, species include] kea..kakariki..rifleman..whitehead..grey warbler..fantail..tomtit”
746 6 Agency App. N “At Waituna wetlands..brodifacoum cereal baits..15 of 18 banded [fernbirds] disappeared from the treatment area”
746 7 Agency App. N “Fernbird..Gouland Downs 1994 5 of 9 banded birds re-sighted [after 1080 cereal operation]”
746 9 Agency App. N “Kokako..low priority [in assessing impacts of 1080] – monitoring to date indicates no population level impacts [situation in 1997]”
746 10 Agency App. N “Blue duck..19 radiotagged adults”
746 11 Agency App. N “New Zealand falcon..lack of information on potential impacts of 1080 [situation in 1997]”
747 1 Agency App. N “Kereru..dead birds found after 1080 operations; no attempts to determine mortality of radiotagged birds [situation in 1997]”
747 3 Agency App. N “Kereru..on-going predation of kereru nests [after 1080 carrot operation, 2000]”
747 2 Agency App. N “Morepork..dead birds found after 1080 operations and tested positive for 1080 residues”
747 4 Agency App. N “Rifleman..dead birds found containing 1080 residues”
747 5 Agency App. N “Whitehead..dead birds found; lives in forests regularly treated with 1080”
747 6 Agency App. N “Robin..dead birds found containing 1080 residues; population mortality 55% in one sample of marked birds”
747 7 Agency App. N “Australasian harrier..Low priority [for research] – few reports of dead birds; widespread species not in decline [situation in 1997]”
747 8 Agency App. N “Pukeko..Anecdotal reports of dead birds following rabbit control”
747 9 Agency App. N “Grey warbler.. Fantail..few found dead since carrot bait screened..widespread, disperses measurable impacts based on 5-minute bird counts”
748 1 Agency App. N “[Tomtit]..dead birds found wherever aerial 1080 operations occur; measured residues, population declines after 1080 carrot operations [situation in 1997]”
748 2 Agency App. N “[Tomtit]..Waimanoa 1997 (screened carrot at 10 kg/ha)..3/14 banded birds re-sighted, 3 dead unbanded, One year post-operation fewer birds seen in treatment area”
748 3 Agency App. N “[Tomtit]..Waimanoa 2003 (screened carrot at 3 kg/ha) Decreases in territorial male counts in treatment area”
748 4 Agency App. N “[Tomtit]..Kokomako Forest 2003 (carrot) and Mohaka Forest 2003 (carrot) Decreases in territorial male counts in treatment area”
748 5 Agency App. N “[Tui..] Kapiti Island 1984 (screened carrot) one dead bird”
748 6 Agency App. N “Key species [of birds] have been subject to increased monitoring and no direct population level impacts attributable to 1080 poisoning have been identified”
748 7 Agency App. N “there have been instances where the use of 1080 has not been successful in adequately managing the risks of predation”
749 1 Agency App. N “Improvements in bait quality/preparation and reduced sowing rates have contributed to fewer deaths of individual birds, as indicated by monitoring results”
756 4 Agency App. N “The birds were sampled for 1080 residues, but as for the deer, the results were not appended to the report accessed by the Agency”
757 1 Agency App. N “5-minute bird-counts were undertaken on 3 species [after an aerial operation with 1080 carrot with and without deer repellent]..only by inexperienced observers, with the authors acknowledging that the method used didn’t have the statistical power to detect anything but a very large degree of mortality”
758 2 Agency App. N “Residues [in dead wild animals] ranged from 7.2-32 mg/kg in blackbirds; 1.4-5.8 mg/kg in chaffinch; 0.23-0.75 in tomtits..0.46 mg/kg in muscles samples [of a dead pig] and in deer..0.25-4.4 mg/kg”
765 2 Agency App. O “DoC’s procedures on land where flightless ground birds occur were altered in 2005 to ensure that bait stations/bags are raised at least 70 cm above the ground”
767 1 Agency App. O “Merhtens & Gaze (2003)..drew attention to the uncoordinated reporting [regarding cyanide]..and to try to get a better picture of weka deaths [studied] 21 weka fitted with transmitters..2 birds died before the operation began..3 birds died close to the bait lines and  a further 4 untagged weka were found dead”
768 1 Agency App. O “The Agency concludes that in the absence of such data the risks of cyanide to other bird species [than weka] are unknown”
772 1 Agency App. O “Significant numbers of weka have been caught where they gain access to traps..DoC [now requires] traps..where ground birds are known to be present, to be set 700 mm above the ground..weka continue to be caught..the effectiveness of the new guidelines is not known”
773 1 Agency App. O “The catch rates reported..may..represent a significant percentage of the kiwi population..McLennan et al (1996) report that extensive surveys showed that about 10% of adult kiwi had damaged feet or toes, which they attributed to having been caught in leg-hold traps over the previous 2-3 decades..the actual catch rate will be [30-50%] higher taking account of birds injured fatally, and natural attrition of the ‘marked’ [damaged] population”
774 1 Agency App. O “Blue penguin..paradise shelduck..brown teal..Australasian harrier..pukeko..southern black-backed gulls..kereru..kakapo..kaka..kea..kakariki..long tailed kokako..have all been caught in traps..most..caught in leg-hold traps that have been set on the ground without surrounding barriers to reduce accidental capture of non-target species”
774 2 Agency App. O “traps raised to protect native ground birds have a higher risk of trapping birds such as kereru, morepork, and kaka”
774 3 Agency App. O “records of bird by-catch include some very small species..indicating that the traps must have been set very lightly”
851 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Following the 1996 1080 operation it took 5-8 years for hawks, and moreporks to recover. In 2004 (after another 1080 aerial operation)..bird song diminished to almost nothing and has yet to return”
851 2 Agency App. T: Submissions “Bush poisoned more than once by 1080 has remained virtually silent”
852 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “As a landowner..I have noticed an almost complete disappearance of all living fauna after each 1080 drop. The possums, rabbits and rats are the first to recover, the birds have still not recovered.”
863 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “In areas where 1080 has been used heavily you will not find native hawk, owls, moreporks”
864 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Hawks and native falcon actively scavenge on dead rabbits post poison, but are not killed” (Otago Regional Council)
869 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “Mustelids and cats don’t eat carrot or pollard bait, so when rodents are killed (by 1080) mustelids and cats prey on birds”
886 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “The SPCA maintains its strenuous opposition to the use of 1080 in situations where non-target species, such as dogs, cats, deer and bird life, may be either directly or indirectly affected; also to use of 1080 for species..where..there has been insufficient [independent] research into the effects, in terms of humaneness, on these animals”
914 1 Agency App. T: Submissions “We strongly support continued use of unscreened 1080 carrot baits in areas with no native birds or other issues. The cost of screening is an extra burden on landowners” (Maniototo Pest Management Ltd)
12 2 Applicants’ references “A number of wild birds and some domestic animals were accidentally killed during the tests [of 1080 as a rat poison] despite stringent precautions taken in laying the bait and warning is concluded that..[1080] does not produce..consistent results; 1080 is too dangerous for general use” (Barnett & Spencer, 1949)
101 1 Applicants’ references “Birds [yellow-billed magpies] die in the nest making recovery of the bodies unlikely” (Koenig & Reynolds, 1987)
112 1 Applicants’ references “The detection of 1080 in the muscle of an eel 9 days after it last consumed possum gut tissue..suggests that the..excretion of sublethal doses..may be slower than in mammals and in-depth study should be undertaken..other scavenging aquatic fauna..also..should be considered” (Lyver et al., 2004)
139 1 Applicants’ references “Stoats..contained mostly rats, and some birds and mice..ferrets..ate lagomorphs and invertebrates”(Murphy et al., 1998)
139 2 Applicants’ references “Stoats shifted between eating rats and birds, depending on the abundance of rats..stoats are likely to have the greatest effect on birds after successful 1080 operations” (Murphy et al., 1998)
163 2 Applicants’ references “Twelve..of the 22 banded robins in the treatment area disappeared in the fortnight immediately following the poison operation..all five tomtits..disappeared of six radio-tagged the treatment area was found dead and tested positive for 1080” (Powlesland et al., 1998)
164 1 Applicants’ references “We monitored birds in one treatment and one non-treatment study area to study..mortality, nesting success and survival” (Powlesland et al., 2003)
164 2 Applicants’ references “No radio-tagged kereru and too few radio-tagged kaka bred to show [effects of possum and rat numbers after poisoning]..while no radio-tagged adult male kaka died during the study, 6 females did..radiotagged kereru suffered high mortality..predation was the main cause of mortality” (Powlesland et al., 2003)
186 1 Applicants’ references “wildlife managers need to know the chances of wild rare birds feeding on baits before approving poisoning operations where they occur” (Spurr, 1993)
1 1 Submitter 8529 “I have personally witnessed the dead deer, pigs, and bird life..many of the poison pellets and victims were lying in the waterways”
2 1 Submitter 8606 “I am a retired Conservator of Wildlife ..have been opposed to the bulk sowing of 1080 since the late 50s and early 60s..when I witnessed its obvious ability to kill other than the target species in large numbers. Its use on rabbits decimated the huge quail and chukor population of Central Otago as well as every other species of ground bird, hawks, moreporks and falcons that were attracted to the baits, the dead rabbits and the secondary kill of rats and insects etc.”
194 1 Submitter 9074 “The [US] 1080 poisoning programme went on for a few years, until the predators and raptors were almost gone. The bald and golden eagles that had been common in the valley were seen only rarely, and hilltops that had rung with the howls of coyotes now were still and silent..Then the rodents hit the valley like a horde of locusts. With hardly any meat-eaters left to control their sharply multiplying numbers, the rodents popped up everywhere”
13 1 Committee Decision “Research suggests 1080 can kill birds, but that this impact is minimal and has a short-term effect on the population”
40 3 Committee Decision “The applicants..noted..secondary poisoning of mustelids…& consequential benefits to native species from the decline in numbers of these animals after an operation”
40 6 Committee Decision “The Committee considers that the continued use of 1080 brings the significant benefit of reduced predation of native birds”
40 7 Committee Decision “If the use of 1080 were restricted to ground-based control, some known populations of highly threatened species could be protected”
61 3 Committee Decision “The applicants explained that while tomtits and robins are most vulnerable to 1080, these birds are able to breed more than once a year and have relatively large broods”
61 4 Committee Decision “The net result is an overall increase in populations of these birds [tomtits & robins] in breeding seasons subsequent to an aerial 1080 operation”
61 5 Committee Decision “The more recent data are derived from studies where birds have been radiotagged or banded…[and] demonstrate that populations are not adversely affected”
62 1 Committee Decision “[on islands where 1080 has been used] bird populations are thriving” (not just aerial 1080 used, islands)
65 3 Committee Decision “Several studies have investigated whether small birds such as robins and tomtits are killed from primary or secondary poisoning”
65 4 Committee Decision “Based on studies with radio-tagged birds [moreporks], the Committee concludes that there is no evidence of adverse effects on populations of these birds”
92 1 Committee Decision “[The Committee is imposing a control requiring information about each aerial operation]..the information must include..details of pre- and post-operation monitoring of fauna..details of post operation monitoring of water quality”
126 3 Committee Decision “Risks [to bats, native birds, frogs and lizards] are generally well understood by users of…1080 and can be managed”
132 2 Committee Decision “ten significant beneficial effects..associated with the aerial use of 1080..[include] reduced predation [of native birds]”
133 1 Committee Decision “three significant risks..with aerial 1080..[1] effects on threatened species of native birds following direct exposure to pellets” (omitted secondary poisoning)
133 6 Committee Decision “when protecting breeding/nesting birds from predation..poor timing may reduce the benefits, and possibly require a shorter interval until next application”
188 1 Decision App. A [any person who applies aerial 1080 must supply information on]..pre- and post-operational monitoring of birds and invertebrates (if available)..and water quality (if available)”
195 2 Decision App. B “Compliance with best practice for preparation and distribution of bait minimises risks [to native birds]”
196 2 Decision App.B “birds most susceptible [to poisoned possum and rodent carcasses] not affected at population level”
196 3 Decision App.B “insectivorous birds such as tomtits and robins not affected at population level”
487 7 Agency App. F “counts of chaffinches, eastern rosellas, mynas and tui..increased [in a poisoned area] relative to control site”