Aquatic Plants

Page No. Source Quotes from Decision Documents
330 2 Agency App. B “1080 is a very toxic compound, because in mammalian systems (and many other animals and plants) it is readily metabolised into a toxic isomer of fluorocitrate..which interferes with a key biochemical pathway, the Kreb’s Cycle”
349 6 Agency App. C “Data gaps..Toxicity to algae..[mitigating factor is] low concentrations in water from normal operation practices but could be relevant to spills”
351 3 Agency App. C “very little 1080 is taken up by plants”
353 4 Agency App. C “In a study with the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis, formation..of fluorocitrate from 1080 in the water was observed..presumably micro-organisms present in the test system were able to..release fluorocitrate into the water column”
354 1 Agency App. C “non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice]…A brief summary only of the test results [on aquatic plant uptake of 1080] was reported..test conditions not specified..weight basis for concentration in plants not specified, no statistical analyses reported, [plant species studied not reported]..no information provided on effects on..aquatic invertebrates in the test aquaria..Eason et al., 1993”
354 2 Agency App. C “[after 0.1 mg/L 1080 added to aquaria with plants and invertebrates, amount and source not specified]..residues were detected in the plants reaching a maximum of 0.051 mg/kg after one hour [with a 70% decline in 1080 in the after  24 hours]”
354 4 Agency App. C “non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice], [one] distilled water control..no statistical analyses reported, 21°C otherwise test conditions not specified, degradation results presented graphically only””
354 5 Agency App. C “1080 below limits of detection [at 21 oC in aquaria with plants, bacteria and fungi, dosed with 0.1mg 1080/L] after 141 hours, the longer time to degrade was attributed to the absence of Pseudomonas spp.”
355 1 Agency App. C “1080 concentrations were presented in graphs only..non-standard, non [Good Laboratory Practice]” (one control, omission of 17d data for water with plants)
355 2 Agency App. C “17 Days After Treatment (DAT) 1080 stream water without plants [at 23°C] declined to 12 μg/l [from 129 μg/l]..at 7°C slower declines were seen [27 μg / l at 17 DAT]”
355 3 Agency App. C “[Aquatic] Plant uptake of 1080 [120g/L added to 2 L aquaria] peaked at day 1..approx 23  μg/kg”
356 3 Agency App. C “1080 reached a maximum in [aquatic] plants after approx. 24 hours..after 191 hours…traces remained at 11°C [after 0.12 mg/L added to aquaria]”
357 1 Agency App. C “Results obtained from the two repeats of the test were inconsistent, with time to loss of half of the 1080 from water [5  μg/L with aquatic plants] varying markedly..[from 17.9 hours  in one test to 65.6 hours in the other]
357 2 Agency App. C “deionised water used in all tests..to eliminate ..microbial contamination but plants not described as being from axenic culture..monitoring of test conditions not reported..no analyses presented for control samples..non-standard, non GLP [Good Laboratory Practice] “
357 5 Agency App. C “In the [aquatic] plant tissue the concentration reached 2.5  μg/kg after 2 hours and remained relatively stable up to 16 hours [aquatic plants in 5  μg/L 1080]”
357 4 Agency App. C “the concentration of 1080 in water [5  μg/L with aquatic plants] remained relatively constant for the first 6 hours”
359 5 Agency App. C “Overall, the relevance of the aquatic plant/water studies to the degradation of 1080 in water in NZ is not clear”
360 4 Agency App. C “there is significant uncertainty regarding the aquatic classification of 1080 due to the quality of the data available. None of the aquatic plant studies has been conducted to current international standards””
361 6 Agency App. C “Blue-green algae..toxicity threshold 0.4 μg/l”
362 1 Agency App. C “73% reduction in frond growth rate [in duckweed] at 0.5 mg/L”.
362 2 Agency App. C “complete growth inhibition at 50 mg/L [duckweed, Spirodella oligorrhiza]..complete growth inhibition at 100g/L [duckweed, Spirodella polyrrhiza]”
383 1 Agency App. C “the responses of plants to 1080 are highly variable. Some synthesise and hyperaccumulate the substance”
383 5 Agency App. C “[plant samples] Frozen at -20°C for later analysis”
437 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “after 17 days [fluoroacetate and fluorocitrate] levels were almost undetectable [in aquaria with plants, dosed with up to 5 mg/L 1080]”
444 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “[1080] in [water] plant tissue peaked..on day 1..declined to barely detectable levels..on day 13 (7°C) [after dosing with 0.12 mg/L 1080]”
444 5 Agency App. C: Fisk “the concentration of fluoride in the tanks containing plant material rose to 83 ppb [after dosing with 0.12 mg/L 1080]”
445 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “Comment [by Fisk] This is an important paper that demonstrates that [1080] is degraded quite rapidly by plants and micro-organisms under laboratory conditions” (one study, one aquatic plant species, one dose rate of 1080)
445 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “at 11°C the concentration of 1080 [in aquaria with a species of aquatic plant] declined..at 192 hours there was still 23% of the [1080 dosed at 0.12 mg/L] remaining”
445 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “in the [water] plants, the concentration of [1080] peaked at 24 hr..at 11°C there were still detectable levels at 240 hr [after dosing with 0.12 mg/L 1080]”
445 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “Conclusion [by Fisk]: [1080] is rapidly metabolised..by.. aquatic plants” (single study of one plant species, one dose rate)
452 1 Agency App. C: Fisk “There was no elimination of [1080] in the absence of [aquatic] plant material”
453 2 Agency App. C: Fisk “The rate of elimination [of 1080 in water with aquatic plants] was positively related with temperature and was significantly lower at 5 oC and 11°C”
453 4 Agency App. C: Fisk “There are no data as to whether the metabolic compounds are fluorocitrate (toxic) or glycolate (non-toxic) or any other potential product of metabolism [study on removal of 1080 from water by plants]”
454 3 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] if so [possible adaptation of plants and micro-organisms to 1080 has occurred due to its presence from human and plant sources] adaptation must be quite widespread”
454 5 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] degradation can take place within..plants”
454 6 Agency App. C: Fisk “[Fisk conclusion] It is possible that plants may metabolise [1080] to fluorocitrate”
708 1 Agency App. M “when exposed to 5 μg/l..in water..[Elodea] plants absorbed the 1080 from the solution to reach a maximum  concentration of 2.5 μg/kg before declining relatively slowly to below the limit of detection (2 μg/kg) at 24 hours”
708 2 Agency App. M “Considering the surface water analyses, the absorption [by Elodea canadensis] of 1080 from water containing 5 μg/l ..represents a relatively unlikely scenario”
726 1 Agency App. N “[1080 residues in aquatic plants] 0.005 mg/kg 1080 after 100 hours”
18 1 Applicants’ references “growth of a duckweed..was inhibited 73% in the presence of 5 µM-NaFA” (Bong et al., 1979)
18 2 Applicants’ references “three different species of duckweed..proved..sensitive to [1080]..the frond multiplication rates being halved by 0.5mM [1080]..duckweeds could be used as a sensitive bioassay system” (Bong et al., 1980)
72 2 Applicants’ references “[1 mM 1080] caused an accumulation of citrate and altered the lipid composition in cells [of a species of algae]..it also inhibited..nitrogen fixation.. – markedly in aerobic conditions” (Gallon et al., 1978)
72 4 Committee Decision “investigations..indicate..the uptake of 1080 by plants..is very low”
73 2 Committee Decision “The Committee recommends..studies be carried out on the possible effects of accumulation of 1080 in aquatic plants such as watercress”